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Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs


Other Common Names Include: Ethiopian mustard, Abyssinian mustard

Latin Name: Brassica carinata

Plant Family: Brassicaceae

Close Relatives: Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa), cabbage, broccoli (Brassica oleracea), black mustard (Brassica nigra), Canola (Brassica napus)

Uses and Markets: Bioenergy (jet fuel)

B. carinata plants with maturing seed podsB. carinata seed podsB. carinata seeds
Production Life Cycle in Ontario


Hardiness Zone


Special Notes

B. carinata has good drought tolerance.

Propagation method

Seed at 15 kg/ha to achieve a stand of 350 plants/m2.  Seed at a depth of 1.25 to 2.5 cm.

Greenhouse Seeding/Propagation Dates


Field Seeding Date:

Early spring

Field Transplanting Dates


In-row spacing


Between row spacing

18-40 cm

Optimal Soil temperature at planting



No current Ontario fertility recommendations exist. Research and recommendations from outside Ontario do not necessarily apply to Ontario growing conditions. Research from western Canada indicates B. carinata has similar fertility requirements to canola.  Click here for phosphorus and potassium application guidelines and for more information on specialty crop fertility.

Soil type

Well-drained soils, avoid heavy wet soils.

Soil pH

Acidic to alkaline soils, pH >5.5.

Special requirements for growth habit

Maximum yields are obtained when flowering (45-50 days after seeding), occurs before the hottest days of the summer.

Optimal Temperature Range


Temperature sensitivity

Frost Tolerant, heat tolerant.

Irrigation requirements

Irrigation usually not required.

Days to harvest


Specialized equipment


Harvest Scheduling

Single harvest

Hand harvest or machine harvest

Machine harvest; Direct-combine with an air reel.

Quality parameters/grades

Quality based on final seed moisture.

Additional Harvest Notes

Standard canola harvesting practices can be followed (see OMAFRA Agronomy Guide for Field Crops Publication 811).

Post harvest
Special handling/curing

Seed moisture must be below 9%

Storage Conditions

Relative humidity (RH): Store dried flower heads in a dry environment.

Temperature: Low

Air Exchange: N/A

Duration: N/A

Specific pests observed on this crop in Ontario (observations based on limited experience with this crop)

Insects and Invertebrates: Flea beetles


Other Potential Pests: The following pests have not been observed on this crop in Ontario. However, they are either significant concerns for closely related plants in Ontario, or are reported on this crop in other production areas. This is not a comprehensive list of all potential pests. Not all of these pests will necessarily survive Ontario’s climate, but could potentially survive in a protected environment (e.g. greenhouse, storage facility).

Insects and Invertebrates: Diamondback moth*, swede midge, tarnished plant bug, cutworms, cabbage seedpod weevil

Diseases: White mould (Sclerotinia sclerotiorum)*; seedling disease complex (Rhizoctonia, Fusarium, Pythium)*, blackleg (Leptosphaeria maculans)

*Indicates pests commonly mentioned as causing significant damage or economic loss to this crop in other regions. 


To date the following pests have been the most significant in Ontario: flea beetles. Pests of canola and other oilseeds in Ontario are likely to affect Carinata, although research from Saskatchewan indicates that it is more resistant to some pests, such as blackleg and aphids, than other oilseed crops.  This crop is not in a crop group. For more information on Crop Groups, refer to the Pest section.  Some pesticides may be registered on this crop. Always refer to product labels, and follow all directions specified on the label, before applying any pest control product.  For more information, consult an OMAFRA specialist.

Additional Notes


Ontario Research Projects Used to Create This Profile


  1. Abraha, E., M. Klima, M. Vyvadilova and M. Bechyne.  2008.  Assessment of some agronomic and seed quality traits in Brassica carinata landrace genotypes, doubled haploid lines and hybrids.  Agricultura Tropica et Subtropica. 41(4).
  2. Agrisoma.  Carinata Production: A guide to best management practices
  3. Agronomy Guide for Field Crops.  Publication 811.  Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs.
  4. Auld D., R.M. Gareau and M.K. Heikkinen, 1993. Evaluation of seven species of oilseeds as spring planted crops for the Pacific Northwest. P308-314. In J. Janick and J.E. Simon (eds), New Crops.  Wiley, NY.
  5. Johnson, E.N. et al, 2008.  Agronomy of Camelina sativa and Brassica carinata.  Western Applied Research Corporation, 2008 Annual Report.