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Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs


Other Common Names Include:

European angelica, Garden angelica, Root of the Holy Ghost.

Latin Name: Angelica archangelica

Plant Family: Apiaceae

Close Relatives: Carrots, Dill, Coriander, Celery, Parsley, and Fennel

Uses and Markets: Culinary (e.g. stems steamed and eaten like a vegetable; leaves used for tea; fresh leaves can be added to salads, soups, stews; roots used in baking: Caution – contains compounds that can be toxic in high amounts); Essential oil (e.g. flavouring ingredient in herb liqueurs, added to perfumes and personal care products); Medicinal (e.g. digestive and bronchial disorders); Industrial (e.g. dark green dye).

European angelica
Production Life Cycle in Ontario

Biennial or short-lived perennial.

Hardiness Zone


Special Notes

Stratify seed at 15-21 C to break seed dormancy. Germination can be extremely difficult and is best done directly into the field soon after seed maturity in July. A heat treatment in a greenhouse can also be used to break seed dormancy (days at 30°C and nights at 25°C). Continuous light with an average intensity of 2000 lux will give the highest germination rate.

Propagation method

Most commonly by direct seeding; less commonly by transplants from seeds. Also propagated by root division.

Greenhouse Seeding/Propagation Dates

Late winter.

Field Seeding Date:

Late August (germination period is 4 weeks).

Field Transplanting Dates

May; divide plants in spring or fall.

In-row spacing

30 cm

Between row spacing

60-90 cm

Optimal Soil temperature at planting



No current Ontario fertility recommendations exist. Research and recommendations from outside Ontario do not necessarily apply to Ontario growing conditions. Research from Europe suggests an optimal nitrogen application rate of 120 kg/ha applied at seeding in August and again the following spring. Click here for phosphorus and potassium application guidelines and for more information on specialty crop fertility.

Soil type

Well-drained soils, moist soils.

Soil pH


Special requirements for growth habit


Optimal Temperature Range


Temperature sensitivity

Freeze tolerant.

Irrigation requirements

Irrigation beneficial under normal Ontario conditions.

Days to harvest

Depends on end use.

Specialized equipment:


Harvest Scheduling

Single harvest (roots: early autumn after the second year), multiple harvest from the same planting (leaves: twice per year).

Hand harvest or machine harvest

Hand harvest (leaves); machine harvest (roots: modified potato harvester).

Quality parameters/grades

No established grades. Quality is determined by the market.

Additional Harvest Notes


Post harvest
Special handling/curing

Harvested roots should be dried between 38-60°C for 3-4 days, after being cut into 2-4 pieces to accelerate drying, with an artificial drier. Seeds should be dried at 30-40°C.

Storage Conditions

Relative humidity (RH): 80-95% (fresh leaves)

Temperature: 0-2°C

Air Exchange: N/A

Duration: N/A

Specific pests observed on this crop in Ontario (observations based on limited experience with this crop)

Insects and Invertebrates: Aphids, two-spotted spider mites.

Diseases: None

Other Potential Pests: The following pests have not been observed on this crop in Ontario. However, they are either significant concerns for closely related plants in Ontario, or are reported on this crop in other production areas. This is not a comprehensive list of all potential pests. Not all of these pests will necessarily survive Ontario’s climate, but could potentially survive in a protected environment (e.g. greenhouse, storage facility).

Insects and Invertebrates: None

Diseases: Rhizoctonia crocorum, powdery mildew, downy mildew, Fusarium.

Other: Rodents.


To date the following pests have been the most significant in Ontario: two-spotted spider mites. Disease pressures can be reduced through proper site selection and by promoting good air movement through the canopy.  This crop is in Crop Group 19: Herbs and Spices Group and subgroup 19A: Herb Subgroup. This crop group is being revised and may change in the near future. For more information on Crop Groups, refer to the Pest section.  Always refer to product labels, and follow all directions specified on the label, before applying any pest control product.  For more information, consult an OMAFRA specialist. For pest control products registered on this crop refer to OMAFRA Publication 838.

Mite damage to European angelica
Additional Notes
  • Angelica, like many members of the carrot family, can cause dermatitis in some people. Angelica looks very similar to several close relatives that are extremely poisonous (e.g. water hemlock). Never consume angelica unless its identity has been confirmed.
Ontario Research Projects Used to Create This Profile
  1. McKeown, A.W., C.J. Bakker and J. Schooley. 1998-2002. Herb Demonstration Garden, University of Guelph Simcoe Research Station, unpublished.
  2. Westerveld, S., Elford, E., Filotas, M. and J. Todd. 2010-present. OMAFRA herb demonstration garden. OMAFRA Simcoe Resource Centre, unpublished.
  1. Bomme,U. and A. Wurzinger. 1990. Results of N soil analysis in medicinal plants and herbs. Gemüse (München) 26; 176-178.
  2. Kylin, M. 2010. Angelica archangelica L. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Degree Project:
  3. OMAFRA. 2011. “European Angelica”.
  4. Readers Digest. 2009. The Complete Illustrated Book of Herbs. The Reader’s Digest Association, Inc. Pleasentville, NY.