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Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs


Scientific Name: Linaria vulgaris Mill.

Other Names: linaire vulgaire, Butter-and-eggs, Common toadflax, Yellow toadflax, Wild snapdragon, linaire commune

Family: Figwort or Snapdragon Family (Scrophulariaceae)

General Description: Perennial, reproducing by seed and by extensively creeping roots which produce new shoots and form very dense patches.

Habitat: Toadflax is widely distributed throughout Ontario, occurring in many habitats including roadsides, fence lines, waste places, pastures, edges of woods, and cultivated fields.


  • Cotyledons are diamond-shaped to lanceolate
  • First leaves are smooth and egg-shaped
  • Margins of leaves are rolled inward
  • White spots cover the leaf surfaces


  • Erect
  • 20- 90 cm (8- 36 in.) high
  • Usually branched in the upper part
  • Smooth and hairless



  • Flowers in racemes at ends of stems and branches
  • Each flower short-stalked
  • Sepals:
    • 5
    • narrow
  • Corolla 2-3cm (4/5-1¼in.) long, of 5 united petals
  • Petals:
    • Yellow with an orange spot on the lower lip
    • Very irregular with a long spur at the lower end and 2-lipped at the top
    • The upper lip with 2 small lobes
    • The lower lip with 3 larger lobes
  • The flower resembling the cultivated snapdragon in shape
  • Seedpods egg-shaped, containing many dark brown or black, flat, winged seeds
  • Flowers from June to autumn

Often Confused With
Oldfield Toadflax

Toadflax Toadflax seedling Toadflax stem Toadflax Toadflax Toadflax
Click to enlarge.