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Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs

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guidelines for using insect pheromone and visual traps in orchards

Pheromone traps should be placed 50-100 m apart. Check traps twice a week, recording trap count and removing insects from the trap. Replace pheromones throughout the season, referring to manufacturer's instructions on how long pheromones last. Be sure to place traps in orchard prior to insect flight.


Tentiform leafminer (optional) Oriental fruit moth European apple sawfly Codling moth Dogwood borer Oblique-banded leafroller Apple maggot
Type of trap
# traps per site
When to place in orchards
Half inch green
Late April
Tight cluster
Late June
Petal fall
3-4 weeks after petal fall
Arrangement in orchard
1st generation: place traps close to trunk in low scaffold limbs. 2nd generation: move traps to limbs that are about 1 m off the ground.
At least two rows from edge of orchard. Arrange in a transect through the orchard.
Currently, monitoring is only necessary in eastern Ontario. Place in outside row (near bush), arms-length into canopy, where surrounded by blossoms.
Upwind from wild or abandoned hosts. At least two rows from edge of orchard. Arrange in a line or box pattern. Place traps as high in canopy as possible.
Optimal height is 1.2m.
Upwind from wild or abandoned hosts. At least two rows from edge or orchard. Arrange in a line or box pattern.
Place in outer row of trees, facing wild or abandoned apple or hawthorn.
# of generations per year
3 with a partial 4th
1 or 2 (depending on region)
Activity of moths
1st generation emerge in late April. 2nd generation active from mid to late June. 3rd generation active in August and into September.
1st generation emerge in late May through early June. 2nd generation emerge from early through mid July. 3rd generation emerge from late August through September.
Adults emerge during pink stage of apples.
1st generation moths emerge late May or early June. 2nd generation moths emerge in early August.
Flight usually occurs from June through July.
Overwintering generation moths are active from late June through July. Summer generation are active from August through September.
Flight occurs from late June through September. Peak flight occurs in August.
Interpreting catches
Trapping only indicates when moths are emerging and when to begin looking for eggs.
Time sprays based on peak flight, or on degree day models based on sustained moth catch. 1st generation sprays applied 6-10 days after upswing moths and 3-6 days after upswing for subsequent generations. Trap counts do not indicate population levels. A degree day model has been developed to predict timing of insecticides.
Threshold: 6 sawflies/ trap if pre-bloom insecticide applied, or 3 sawflies/ trap if pre-bloom insecticide not applied.
For individual orchards: use first sustained moth catch as the biofix. Apply ovicides at 50 DDC (base 10°C). Apply larvicides at 125 DDC (base 10°C( for 1st generation; and 600-625 DDC for 2nd generation.
Apply a single spray timed for either first or peak egg hatch. In a study, first hatch occurred nine days after first pheromone trap catch. Peak egg hatch occurred on August 2, 20 days after peak catch.
For organo-phosphate resistant populations, first catch is considered biofix. Apply first spray at 240 DDC (base 6.1°C) after biofix. Apply subsequent sprays as necessary.
Yellow boards indicate first adult emergence. Spray is recommended 7-10 days after the first fly is caught on the yellow sticky board. Subsequent captures are used to time additional sprays. Spray timings differ for different products.