Biosecurity: Health Protection
and Sanitation Strategies for Cattle
|Publication Date:||December 2009|
|Last Reviewed:||February 2011|
|History:||Replaces OMAFRA Factsheet 05-033, BIOSECURITY Health Protection and Sanitation Strategies for Cattle and General Guidelines for Other Livestock|
|Written by:||Neil G. Anderson - Lead Veterinarian - Disease Prevention, Ruminants/OMAFRA|
Livestock owners and industry personnel who support their farms are genuinely concerned with the health, wellbeing and productivity of Ontario's cattle. They recognize that disease outbreaks are preventable. They adopt health management practices to prevent the introduction and/or spread of diseases in Ontario's herds.
There are very sound economic reasons for disease prevention. Some herd owners spend thousands of dollars each year fighting disease outbreaks. There are many more costs associated with chronic diseases that may go unnoticed. In addition to the costs of health care, valuable livestock and production are also lost. Animal welfare, pride in stockmanship and peace of mind are also major incentives to minimize disease occurrence.
Some diseases can be spread through the air. These are difficult to prevent.
However, good biosecurity, nutrition, early disease detection and overall
health management will help minimize the impact of air-borne diseases.
This Factsheet describes management strategies to prevent the introduction of disease to a farm or control the spread of disease amongst animals within a farm. Although the Factsheet refers specifically to cattle, the general strategies are applicable to other farm livestock. The management strategies that prevent the entry and spread of disease can also be called the "biosecurity plan" for the farm. Every farm should have a biosecurity plan as part of its overall health management strategy.
A section on the control of foreign animal diseases appears at the end of this Factsheet.
Contagious diseases are transmitted directly from an infected animal to an uninfected animal. This is the most common method of disease transmission amongst animals. There are four main strategies for managing the potential introduction of disease when adding animals to the farm.
The first method is not to purchase cattle. For practical reasons there are few truly closed herds in Ontario. Owners would have to strictly adhere to the following requirements:
Quarantine of incoming animals is ideal. In most herds, minimizing contact with the rest of the herd may be the only practical method of isolation. To isolate new arrivals:
Many owners take precautions when purchasing animals. They also use laboratory-testing programs to maintain minimal disease herds or disease-free herd status. To know the health status of herd additions:
The 21-30 day isolation period is ideal for:
Additional information on the Canada Health Accredited Herds program
is available from the District Veterinarian, Canadian Food Inspection
Agency at www.inspection.gc.ca/english/directory/
Vaccines are commonly used to protect cattle against respiratory disease
and abortion. For herd additions, these vaccines may be given during the
21 to 30-day isolation period. Bovine virus diarrhea (BVD) and infectious
bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR) have been diagnosed in Ontario herds. Vaccination
against these two diseases should be the cornerstone of every herd vaccination
program. Consult your veterinarian for specific recommendations on these
and other aspects of health management for livestock.
Bacteria, viruses or other agents of disease are infectious when they
are capable of causing infection in exposed animals. Farm visitors wearing
boots or clothing freshly contaminated with infectious agents can spread
diseases within a farm and among farms. Birds, rodents, pets, people,
equipment and vehicles contaminated with manure (or other bodily excretions)
are potential disease carriers.
Pigeons, sparrows, starlings and swallows are the most common birds found in and outside barns. They may carry infectious agents on their feet and within their digestive system. To control bird populations:
A rat deposits 25,000 droppings and a mouse deposits 17,000 droppings in one year. Even a small population of these rodents may severely contaminate feed supplies. In addition, rodents carry disease agents on their feet and fur, and they destroy millions of dollars worth of feed, supplies and buildings each year. To control rats and mice:
OMAFRA's website has information on controlling rodents in livestock facilities. Please consult with a professional about the use of poisons and other methods of rodent destruction.
People spread contaminated material directly on footwear, hands and clothing. To decrease the spread of contaminants:
Vehicles spread contaminated material on their tires, fenders and undercarriages. To decrease the spread of contaminants by vehicles:
The most common means of contaminating feed or feeding areas is by on-farm equipment used for handling manure.
To decrease this risk:
Consider contaminated feeds (forages, pasture, grains and concentrates, water and waste milk), feeding equipment and systems when developing an on-farm biosecurity plan. The section on managing vehicles and farm traffic provides some basic information. The biosecurity of feeding should include plans to:
Disease can spread from animal to animal and farm to farm indirectly
by small and large equipment. To reduce this method of spread:
Young animals acquire infectious diseases through exposure with older infected or carrier animals (see Table 1). Housing and management systems, especially for dairy cattle, are constructed to minimize contact between young and older animals. In effect, the young are given time to develop immunity to diseases before joining the adults. The facilities also permit implementation of feeding and management practices to assure maximum growth, health and comfort. Dairy cattle owners implementing these strategies should:
Spread of disease is reduced when premises are clean and sanitary. In some cases, provincial legislation assures that minimum standards will be maintained. For example, the Milk Act (1987) regulates sanitation on dairy farms in Ontario. Several common management procedures assure adequate sanitation of farm premises.
Table 1. Examples of diseases spread from older to younger cattle
|E. coli scours||contact with feces|
|Salmonellosis||contact with feces|
|Leptospirosis||contact with urine, uterine discharge, aborted foetus|
|Johne's||contact with feces|
|Enzootic Bovine Leucosis||contact with blood from needles, dehorners, tattoo pliers|
|Bovine Virus Diarrhea||contact with body fluids from sick and carrier animals|
|Gastrointestinal parasites||contact with eggs in feces|
|Coccidiosis||contact with oocysts in feces|
Carcasses can be a hazard to people and other animals. They can contaminate soil, air and water and require special handling. To minimize property contamination and risk of spreading disease, owners should:
Producers may choose on-farm disposal methods or have the dead animal picked up by a licensed collector.
On-farm disposal options under the Disposal of Dead Farm Animals Regulation [O. Reg 106/09] include:
For burial, incineration or composting the Regulation describes minimum separation distances from a number of features which include:
The regulation also includes specific guidelines for each disposal option and limitations on the volume of deadstock disposed of for each option.
Producers also may transport their own deadstock to:
Deadstock may be picked up by a collector licensed under the FSQA. Federal
regulations apply to the transportation of dead cattle. Cattle carcasses
or Specified Risk Materials (SRM) removed from a carcass must be dyed
with a visible stripe. SRM are tissues that have been shown in infected
cattle to contain concentrated levels of the bovine spongiform encephalopathy
(BSE) agent. Collectors are responsible for applying the dye prior to
removal of carcasses.
Producers transporting their deadstock or SRM to a receiver must follow guidelines in the FSQA regulations. To move dead cattle or SRM off-farm, producers must obtain a free 90-day permit from the Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA). The process may involve an on-farm inspection by CFIA staff.
Cattle that die during transportation are considered to be SRM. The transporter
requires a permit to bring the carcass back to the premises of origin
or to a facility that is permitted by the CFIA to store, process or dispose
CFIA has a comprehensive set of documents that outline the policy related to components that may not be added to feed (the enhanced feed ban). The documents are available at
Infected animals often shed infectious agents in their feces, urine and other bodily fluids. The agents may contaminate feed, water and housing. To reduce the risk of spreading disease by manure:
See the factsheet Control of Insect and Related Pests of Livestock and Poultry in British Columbia available online at www.agf.gov.bc.ca/cropprot/livestck.htm for more specific information. This guide contains specific chemical control recommendations for arthropods affecting livestock. The site also has factsheets describing the biology and management of specific pests.
Exposure of freshening cattle and calves to infectious agents is reduced by carefully managing maternity and sick pens. For disease control:
Information about disinfectants is available on the product label or from farm supply dealers, veterinarians, the Canadian Animal Health Institute and the product manufacturers.
The Canadian Compendium of Veterinary Products, 2009, 11th Edition, contains the monographs of many common disinfectants. The indications for use, special properties, advantages, cautions and directions are described for each product. Your veterinarian should have a copy of this book in his/her veterinary clinic.
Familiarize yourself with the product information contained on the product label or package insert before making a selection. For a particular application, determine if a product:
Several disinfectants for stables, housing and footbaths for visitors are shown in Table 2. These were obtained from the Compendium of Veterinary Products and are listed as examples, not endorsement. Other products may be available. Use the product information brochure included with the product to determine if the disinfectant meets the criteria for your application.
Disinfectants fall into six major categories: chlorhexidine, formaldehyde/glutaraldehyde, iodine complex, isopropanol, phenolic, or quarternary ammonium disinfectants. Several disinfectants fall into the other category not included in those mentioned above.
ALWAYS READ AND FOLLOW LABEL INSTRUCTIONS
Table 2. Several common disinfectants for farm use
|Chlorhexidine acetate||Hibitane®||Disinfectant Wyeth|
|Chlorine/sulfates||AVS Virucidal Extra||Bio Agri Mix|
|B - 90||Agro B|
|Virkon® Disinfectant Cleaner||Vétoquinol|
|Iodine complex||Dairy Dine||Dominion|
|Multi Phenolic Disinfectant||Bio Agri Mix|
|Lysol||Reckitt Benckiser (Canada) Inc.|
|BioSentry EZ Kleen||Pfizer|
|BioSentry Fog Enhancer||Pfizer|
|Fumalyse II||Bio Agri Mix|
For more than 50 years, Canada has successfully used border and import restrictions to prevent the entry of foreign animal disease (FAD). Ontario's livestock producers support these actions and supplement them with some common sense on-farm strategies.
Canada prevents the introduction of FAD by strict border controls. The Canadian Food Inspection Agency and Customs Canada continue to:
Ontario's livestock producers prevent the introduction of FAD by common
sense and practical farm-gate strategies.
For example, food and mouth disease (FMD) virus is easily killed by common procedures for cleaning or washing clothes - dry cleaning, bleach or washing soda. Experiments carried out 30 years ago showed that people examining the head area of clinically affected pigs harboured the FMD virus in their nasal cavity for less than two days. In these trials, infection of FMD was transmitted by snorting and coughing into the noses of steers within 30 minutes after examining the affected pigs. Presumably, the concept of a "stand-down period" after exposure to FMD virus came from these experiments. This confirms that persons who have been working with FMD animals must stay away from healthy animals for more than two days. Please see the Canadian Food Inspection Agency website for more information on foot and mouth disease.
To prevent the introduction of foreign animal diseases from infected animals on farms in countries with diseases, Ontario's producers should:
In case of an outbreak of a foreign animal disease in Ontario, federal veterinarians may impose bans on cattle movements to prevent the spread of contagious diseases from animal to animal. There would also be other control actions to stop the disease from spreading.
Organic material (dirt and manure) inactivates many disinfectants. Therefore, clean your boots with a brush and water, removing all dirt and manure so that the disinfectant will sanitize the boots. Hypochlorites and iodophors will cause deterioration of rubber boots if left in contact. Prolong boot life by rinsing them with clear water after thoroughly disinfecting.
The work of disease prevention is never finished. Owners have the ultimate responsibility for herd protection. Visitors must respect biosecurity protocols put in place by livestock owners. Savvy livestock owners implement biosecurity strategies to prevent the introduction of disease to their herds and also to prevent the spread of diseases already present. To protect their herds, owners commonly:
Review strategies for health protection and sanitation management of your herd using the lists above. Consult a veterinarian regarding which biosecurity strategies to use in your herd health program. Implement the appropriate strategies to insure health and comfort for your cattle. Make sure all workers and visitors are aware of their role in safeguarding the health of the herd.
For foreign animal diseases, border controls are a major part of the national biosecurity line of defence. On-farm biosecurity is an equally important line of defence. Together these steps minimize the entry and impact of diseases on your farm and in Canada.
Rodent Control in Livestock Facilities, OMAFRA Factsheet Order No. 07-009.
Canadian Compendium of Veterinary Products, 11th Edition 2009. CCVPBS, 148 King St., P.O. Box 39, Hensall, ON, N0M 1X0. http://canstore.naccvp.com
Canadian Animal Health Institute, 160 Research Lane, Suite 102, Guelph, ON, N1G 5B2.
Canadian Food Inspection Agency www.inspection.gc.ca
Animal Disease Information: Animal Biosecurity. www.inspection.gc.ca/english/anima/biosec/biosece.shtml
Enhanced Feed Ban Decision Documents. www.inspection.gc.ca/english/anima/disemala/bseesb/enhren/enhrene.shtml
Sanitary Precautions and Disinfecting Agents. www.inspection.gc.ca/english/anima/heasan/man/avmmva/avmmva_mod7_a2e.shtml
Sellers RF, Donaldson AI, Herniman KAJ (1970). Inhalation, persistence and dispersal of foot-and-mouth disease virus by man. J. Hygiene. 68:565-73.
Sellers RF, Herniman KAJ and Mann JA (1971). Transfer of foot-and-mouth disease virus in the nose of man from infected to non-infected animals. Vet Rec. 89:447-49.
Sellers, R. Biosecurity of Dairy Farm Feedstuffs. Bovine Alliance on Management and Nutrition. http://nahms.aphis.usda.gov/dairy/bamn/BAMNFeedstuffs.pdf