PED Virus and Considerations
for Manure Application
As a result of the recent introduction of the Porcine Epidemic
Diarrhea virus (PEDv) to Ontario, pork producers have additional
challenges and considerations when applying manure. All pork producers
can be impacted by PEDv and should be aware of the risks, and the
appropriate precautions and biosecurity measures; however, it is
also important for others involved in agricultural operations to
have an understanding of how this specific virus is spread and the
impact that it can have for the pork industry.
The best way to address the spread of the PEDv is through preventive
action and thorough biosecurity. Anyone spreading manure has a role
to play in reducing the risks of transmitting the virus.
- Ensure manure application equipment is clean and disinfected
before entry onto any pig farm.
- Manure on roadways, barn yards, equipment or clothes can be
enough to spread PEDv. Keep manure off of surfaces that could
end up transferring the virus to another pig farm.
- Inject or incorporate manure into soil as quickly as possible.
- Equipment should be thoroughly cleaned and disinfected prior
to arrival on site.
- Effective PEDv disinfectants include Clorox, Virkon S, Tek-trol,
and 1-Stroke Environ.
- Ensure employees change clothes and wash/disinfect their boots
between spreading sites.
- Custom applicators should avoid scheduling pig farms one after
the other and if possible, spread manure from various livestock
operations in rotation (swine, dairy, etc).
- Those working with or spreading manure must not enter any pig
barn or come in contact with pigs.
- Maintain a line of separation between daily farm traffic/barn
staff and set-up of manure loading and hauling.
- Manure applicators should use separate access ways to manure
storage or hauling whenever possible.
- PEDv lifespan is considerably shortened under aerobic conditions.
Manure storages should be completely agitated before application.
- Pumping washwater back into the manure storage is recommended
when manure application at that site is finished.
- If this is not practical, have equipment washed on soil that
can easily and quickly absorb the water, and is not in any traffic
lanes associated with the regular barn traffic.
- Give a thorough cleaning and disinfection of equipment before
moving to another farm.
- Where it is known that a site is PEDv positive, manure storages
should be scheduled last to reduce the risk of transmission.
- If a site is known PEDv positive, the manure should be held
as long as possible and until the weather is warmer to reduce
the amount of virus present.
- Consider keeping manure on the same property as the barn to
limit transport, respecting crop requirements and nutrient management
- Consider applying manure inter-row after the corn is up to take
advantage of higher temperatures to help reduce the virus lifespan.
- During field application incorporate uniformly into the soil
profile where possible.
- Fully cover manure with soil by managing incorporation/injection
equipment and application rates to avoid manure boiling up in
the injection slot and leaking onto headlands.
- Surface applied manure that is not incorporated is a risk because
domestic animals, wildlife and birds can carry virus to previously
unaffected locations. This risk is higher in areas where hog farms
are more numerous. However, if surface applying, do so when temperatures
are warmer and there will be several days of sunshine to help
inactivate the virus.
PED Virus Overview
What is PEDV?
- Porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED) is a viral disease that affects
- PED causes acute and severe outbreaks of diarrhea that rapidly
transmits among all ages of pigs. The disease is most serious
in newborn piglets where mortality can reach 100%.
How is PEDv spread?
The virus can be spread by the direct contact of PED infected pigs
or their manure with healthy pigs.
The virus can also be transmitted by items contaminated with infected
manure, such as clothing, boots, farm supplies, feed, loading chutes,
vehicles, and manure equipment.
Are there public health or other livestock concerns?
- The virus does not infect people and is not a food safety concern.
- The virus only makes pigs sick; other farm animals will not
How long can PED virus survive in manure?
Research studies in the US have not confirmed a specific time
frame and/or temperature that would ensure inactivation of PEDv
in solid or liquid manure. Producers need to ensure that they use
Best Management Practices as outlined above when spreading manure
and continue to utilize biosecurity procedures to keep PEDv out
For additional information on Best Management Practices for Manure
Spreading or PEDv go to ontario.ca/swine
Technical information in this article was supplied by: Agriculture
and Agri-food Canada, National Pork Board, Ontario Pork, Ontario
Ministry of Agriculture and Food and Ministry of Rural Affairs.