Processor PED Cleaning and Disinfection

This information was presented at an Ontario Pork Processor Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea (PED) Cleaning and Disinfection Planning Session February 1, 2014.


  • C & D - Cleaning and Disinfection
  • S.O.P. - Standard Operating Procedures
  • Plant - Slaughter and/or Processing Facility
  • PED - Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea

Introductory Planning Session

Presentation today is directed at slaughter and processing facilities or plants receiving live hogs.

  • Plants
    • Vary in physical size
    • Layout and site plan
    • Volume of animals received
    • Some are multi-species sites

Therefore, each plant needs its own S.O.P.

Information provides factors to consider while preparing an S.O.P. for your plant.

Risk Factors

  • Cross traffic
  • Need unidirectional flow (Clean and Dirty Concept)
  • Marks/barriers on the floor or barriers between areas
  • Have specific movement plans such as boot change, hand wash, coverall change, that must be followed between areas

Movement Plans

Direction of traffic from ramp and chute to processing; from dirty to clean

Figure 1. Movement Plan

Protocols for People

Protocols for Movements of People

  • Access to the barn area requires:
    • C&D of boots, donning boot covers or boots dedicated to the barn
    • Donning protective outer clothing (coveralls)
    • Donning disposable gloves (good practice to keep hands clean)

  • Exit from barn area requires:
    • Hand washing
    • C&D of boots, removal of boot covers or boots dedicated to the barn
    • Removal of outer coveralls

Ramps and Chutes

  • Ramps may be made of concrete, wood, metal
  • Non porous construction materials are ideal
  • Wood - wash with hot water and soap - it does a lot
  • Paint to seal wood as the weather permits
  • Seal concrete, especially cracks that trap manure
  • Material that gets onto the ramp should just be what is carried out by the animals

Step Number One

  • use hot, soapy water, remove the visible dirt and manure, scrub as needed

Consider Drainage

Washing materials off the end of the ramp results in:

  • Water pooling
  • Run off containing chemicals, PED
  • Manure on the ground
  • Sticky mud/clay
  • Next truck backs into mud/manure mix, driver walks through it
  • Effective drainage
  • Contain liquid hazardous chemicals or wastes in order to prevent release into the environment
  • Place pans or bins under smaller objects
  • Place berms under vehicles and large equipment

Photo showing methods to contain liquids to prevent escapes

Figure 2. contain liquids to prevent escape



  • Most disinfectants are tested at room temperature.
  • Some manufacturers test their product and provide recommendations for a temperature range
  • Cold temperatures slow the rate of chemical reactions and often increase the contact time required. In very cold temperatures, disinfectants can stop working completely
  • Consult the manufacturer about the required contact time and concentration of disinfectant to use in cold weather - especially below zero

Below Zero Disinfection

  • Routine use of Virkon S ® is a 1% solution for 10 minute contact time
  • Studies using viruses of birds found that at -20°C a 2% Virkon S ® (with 40% propylene glycol) wasn needed to kill virus with a 15 minute contact time
  • As a result CFIA's recommendation to their response teams is to use double strength and double contact time below Zero Celsius. Example: 2% Virkon S ® and 20 minutes contact time

Freeze Protection

  • CFIA has conducted some disinfectant efficacy testing with Propylene Glycol with Bleach and Virkon Solutions
-5°C -10°C -20°C
20% Propylene Glycol (PG) 30% Propylene Glycol 40% Propylene Glycol
200ml PG + 800ml water 30ml PG + 700ml water 400ml PG + 600ml

Other Disinfectants

Check with the manufacturer before using:

  • Tek-trol
  • 1 Stroke
  • VirkonS
  • Chlorox (Bleach)
  • Synergize

Source: University of Minnesota

Important to prepare a fresh batch of disinfectant each shift/day.

Environmental Protection Measures

  • Locate disinfection stations away from ditches, water ways, flood plains, slopes, and areas with high water tables
  • Determine if the disinfectant you plan to use can be replaced with a less toxic alternative
  • Dispose of disinfectants according to local municipal regulations.
  • Consult with the local municipal authorities about allowable limits for specific chemicals and pH. Some jurisdictions have a zero tolerance for phenols and aldehydes in effluent discharge
  • Request an assessment, by local or provincial authorities, of cleaning and disinfecting stations and chemical and waste storage areas in order to determine the likelihood that a spill, or overflow, may cause an adverse environmental effect

Access and Zoning

  • Control and manage access to and movement at abattoirs and sales yards
    • Restrict access to the site to only those people and deliveries that are necessary
    • Post signage at the periphery and block access
      • to stop traffic, direct traffic, and provide information to access and exit the site
  • Establish and identify zones/areas to allow the separation of clean and dirty activities


Clean Zone
  • Entrances and exits from site
  • Staff entrance, offices, delivery of new/clean supplies, loading dock for finished product
  • Clean re-bedding storage area
Dirty Zone
  • Live animal unloading
  • Deadstock storage/disposal/unloading/loading
  • Vehicle and equipment wash stations
  • Driver/personnel wash station
  • Drivers should not enter the establishment past the unloading ramp
  • Unload all hogs - one way trip
  • Move dead on arrivals to the dead-stock storage
  • Ideally, C&D transports at wash station on site before exiting the live animal unloading area
  • If wash station is not present, tractor and trailer chassis, wheel wells and tires should be C&D before exiting the live animal unloading area. After exiting the site drive to nearest wash station and thoroughly wash and disinfect vehicle following vehicle wash procedures
Effective Cleaning of Vehicles
  • Straight lances were not effective in removing dirt from wheel wells and undercarriage. Angle lances or nozzles are a must
  • CFIA trials have shown that using hot soapy water and a brush is better at removing dirt than a pressure washer alone.

Some items you may want to include in your SOP

  1. Diagram of the layout of the plant (ramp, barn, processing)
  2. Picture/Diagram of the layout of the site (physical features, wind direction, distances)
  3. Wash system (hot/cold water, high pressure)
  4. Physical features of ramp/chute/animal delivery area (wood, metal, covered, uncovered)
  5. Soap and Disinfectant plans (mixing recipe)
  6. Vehicle Movement (the path transports will take in and out, staff and customer vehicle parking)
  7. Movement plans (Steps to move Clean to Dirty and Dirty to Clean)
  8. Truck C & D facilities (what is available, what can you do)
  9. Other - your SOP, add other items you feel are appropriate
  10. Write in simple English as if you were training a new employee and needed to tell them the rules of C & D and Biosecurity at your Plant

Each Plant Has Its Own SOP.

If you want us to review your SOP email us at

For more information:
Toll Free: 1-877-424-1300
Author: Dr. Nancy P. Robinson, Canadian Food Inspection Agency
Creation Date: 8 February 2014
Last Reviewed: 16 February 2016