Notes for the 2014 Swine
This information sheet provides the assumptions that are used to
calculate the monthly OMAFRA Swine Budget. The monthly Swine Budget
provides a guide and format to estimate the cost of production for
a swine enterprise. The cost estimates and assumptions are based
on information from a variety of industry sources. The cost figures
are not obtained from an actual survey. Therefore, adjustments and
interpretations are necessary when applying these figures to a particular
business enterprise. Individual farm figures will vary depending
on the resources, management, production, health status, size, market
conditions, risk, and financial arrangements!
Farrow to Finish - To arrive at an estimated
cost of production for farrow to finish, the estimated production
costs are split into three production phases, Farrow to Wean, Nursery,
and Grow-Finish. The Farrow to Finish Budget is the accumulated
cost of the three phases and is based on 23.25 market pigs sold
per sow per year. The various costs from the three phases are totalled
on a per sow basis and divided by 23.25 to arrive at the per pig
cost for the farrow to finish budget. By doing this, a mortality
and morbidity cost is built into budget estimates.
- The Farrow to Wean Phase is based on producing 25.5 weaned
pigs per sow per year. Assuming a 12% pre-weaning death loss and
2.35 litters per sow per year; it would take 12.5 pigs born alive
per litter to achieve this. To arrive at a cost per sow, multiply
the per pig figures by 25.5.
- The Nursery Pig Phase is based on producing 96% of the
weaned pigs placed as feeder pigs weighing 27 kilograms. The nursery
pig space is assumed to be turned.
- Over 6.5 times per year or approximately 56 days per turn. To
arrive at a cost per sow, multiply the per pig figures by 24.5.
- The Grow-Finish Phase is based on marketing 94% of the feeder
pigs placed as market pigs. Pigs are placed on feed at 27 kilograms
for approximately 112 days and finished at the indicated average
monthly market weight and index. It is assumed that each barn
space is turned 2.89 times per year. To arrive at a cost per sow,
multiply the per pig figures by 23.25.
- Income - The market pig value ($/pig) is based
on 101% of the monthly average Ontario base formula price, the
monthly average dressed weight(kg), an index of 110 and a premium
of $2.00 per hog.
Market pig value ($/pig) =
Monthly average Ontario base formula price
X average monthly dressed weight(kg)
X 110 index
+ $2.00 premium
- Feed - The feed costs are estimated using corn,
soybean meal and premix. The monthly corn value is based on the
average of the daily Huron FOB Farm and the Western Ontario Feed
corn prices. The monthly soybean meal value is based on the average
daily Hamilton soybean meal prices plus $20 per tonne for trucking
and handling. A feed processing charge of $20 per tonne is included
for feed and storage equipment overhead costs (depreciation, interest,
insurance), operating costs (labour, repairs, hydro), handling
costs (invisible loss). No feed additive or medication cost is
included in the feed cost since these are estimated on the health
- Breeding Herd Feed - This is a combination
of gestation and lactation feed assuming 1,100 kilograms of
feed per sow per year. A five month rolling average feed cost
based on the time of the gestation and lactation feed is used
to produce the market pig (5 to 9 months prior).
- Nursery Feed - This is based on a phase
feeding feed budget using a total of 33.5 kilograms of feed
per pig. A two month rolling average feed cost is used based
on the nursery period of time to produce the market pig (3
to 4 months prior).
- Grower-Finisher Feed -
This is based on a phase feeding feed budget assuming a 2.75
feed conversion and on feed for an average of 112 days. A
four month rolling average feed cost is used based on feed
costs during the past four months.
- Net Replacement Cost for Gilts - The value
shown is the difference between the estimated cost of commercial
replacement gilts and an estimated cull sow value. The gilt replacement
value is the market hog value plus $130 and a cull sow value is
calculated from the marketplace. The replacement rate is assumed
at 42%, based on a 35% cull rate and a 7% sow death loss rate.
The calculation is a five month rolling average based on the values
during the time of gestation and lactation.
- Health (Vet & Supplies) - These are the
estimated costs for prevention and control of disease within a
herd. They would include injectibles, water and feed treatments.
These figures will vary depending on the health status, protocols,
and cost of supplies and services.
- The farrow to wean cost is estimated at $55.00 per sow per
year. This may include the cost of vaccines for PRRS, parvovirus,
leptospira, swine influenza, and erysipelas, iron treatments
for piglets, worming treatment for sows, supplies, veterinarian
expenses, production and Canadian Quality Assurance (CQA®)
- The nursery cost may include vaccinations for circovirus
and others, water and/or feed treatment programs.
- The grow-finish cost may include water and/or feed treatment
programs and some treatment costs for minor health challenges.
- Breeding (A.I. & Supplies) - 100% A.I.
is assumed based on 2.35 litters per sow, an 85% farrowing rate
and $14.00 per breeding (double dose of semen and supplies).
- Marketing, Grading, Trucking - The market hog
estimate includes the Ontario Pork Universal service fee ($0.95),
the grading fee ($0.06), and an allowance for fees charged for
marketing, trucking and assembly ($3.00). A trucking allowance
of $0.50 per early weaned pig and $0.75 per feeder pig are included
in the variable cost, respectively.
- Utilities (Hydro & Gas) - These costs have
been estimated and allocated based on individual site barns (i.e.
sow, nursery, grow-finish), farrow to feeder pig and farrow to
finish operations. Costs will vary due to a number of reasons
including barn and equipment efficiencies, cost of inputs, size,
production efficiency, and management.
- Miscellaneous - These are estimated figures
to cover other costs that are allocated to the swine enterprise.
- Repairs and Maintenance - These are estimated
using 1.5% of the estimated building, equipment, and site investment
- Labour Cost - These costs will vary depending
on the number of employees, wage and benefit level, number of
hours worked and management and owner-operator labour allocation.
For the purposes of this budget, an estimated cost of $48,000
per person is used. Labour estimates used are farrow to wean labour
cost based on 300 sows per person and the nursery and grow-finish
on 4,000 pig spaces per person.
- Operating Interest - Calculated on one-half
of the operating costs less the marketing costs at the prime chartered
bank rate plus 1%. The farrow to wean interest cost is based on
22 weeks, the nursery on 8 weeks and the grow-finish on 18 weeks.
The nursery phase also includes an interest cost based on the
cost of producing the weaned pig and the grow-finish phase includes
an interest cost based on the cost of producing the feeder pig.
- Fixed Costs - (Depreciation, Interest, Taxes, and Insurance)
-The estimated building, equipment and site cost values
are $1850 per sow for the farrow to wean, $245 per pig space for
the nursery, and $375 per pig space for the grow-finish. Investment
cost over the years have varied depending on a variety of items
including the quality of equipment, site conditions, supply and
demand of inputs, site services costs, upgrading costs, and the
year the buildings were constructed.
- Depreciation - Depreciation is estimated
by dividing the investment value by 20.
- Interest - The interest cost is estimated
using 40% of the investment value at a rate of 7%.
- Taxes and Insurance - These are estimated
using 1.0% of the investment value.
- Summary of Costs - This section provides a
summary of the costs within each production phase. The Other Variable
Costs include the applicable lines from Net Replacement Cost for
Gilts to Operating Loan Interest and the Fixed Costs include the
Depreciation, Interest, Taxes and Insurance.
- Summary - this section provides
the following information:
- Farrow to Weaned Pig Cost - this is the
estimated total variable and fixed costs to produce a weaned
pig five months prior on a per pig basis.
- Farrow to Feeder Pig Cost - this is the
estimated total variable and fixed costs to produce a feeder
pig three to four months prior on a per pig basis.
- Wean to Finish Cost - this is the estimated
total variable and fixed costs to produce a market hog for
sale in the stated month based on the nursery and grow-finish
costs on a per pig basis.
- Farrow to Finish Cost - this is the estimated
total variable and fixed costs (birth to market) in the stated
month on a per pig basis.
- Net Return Farrow to Finish - this is the
difference between the Market Pig Income at the top of the
budget and the total variable and fixed costs on a per pig
- Farrow to Finish Breakeven Base Price - includes
101% and $2 premium - the following formula is used:
$/ckg, 100 index base price =
[total variable and fixed costs ($/pig)- $2 (premium/pig)]
÷ 1.01 (percentage of formula)
÷ 1.10 (index)
÷ average dressed weight (ckg)
- Farrow to Finish Breakeven Base Price ($/ckg, 100
index) - excludes 101% and $2 premium - the following
formula is used:
$/ckg, 100 index base price =
total variable and fixed costs ($/pig)
÷ 1.10 (index)
÷ average dressed weight (ckg)
The OMAFRA Swine Budget provides a format and guide to estimate
a cost of production. The variation in production practices gives
rise to a large variation in costs of production. Interpretation
and utilization of the information will require adjustments to apply
these figures to an individual swine production enterprise. Therefore,
it is important for individual operations to determine their cost
of production based on their records. Accurate and up to date information
is essential to determine an individual farm cost of production
and to make management, financial, and marketing decisions.
For more information on cost of production budgeting see Guide
to Cost of Production Budgeting or Farm
Business Calculators on the OMAFRA website.
OMAFRA Interactive Swine Budget
The OMAFRA Interactive Swine Budget is available to download from
the OMAFRA website. This spreadsheet allows producers to calculate
a cost of production based on their farm information.
Simply choose the type of hog operation from the following: Farrow
to Finish, Farrow to Wean, Farrow to Feeder, Nursery, Wean to Finish,
and Grow-Finish. Information is provided within each cell on how
to calculate the cost and what information is required.
Data summarized from the Monthly Swine Budgets is provided for
See Monthly Swine
Budgets or Interactive Swine Budgets on the OMAFRA website.
If you have questions concerning the Interactive Swine Budget or
the monthly Swine Budgets, please contact Doug Richards, OMAFRA
Swine Specialist at 519-482-3133 or email@example.com.
For more information:
Toll Free: 1-877-424-1300