Molds and Mycotoxins - Mycotoxin Levels and Interpretation
- Fusarium fungus produces Deoxynivalenol (DON or vomitoxin), Zearalenone, T-2 toxin, HT-2 toxin, Fumonisin and Nivalenol.
- Note that results may be expressed in a number of different ways. Therefore remember: ppm = mg/kg = ug/g
- Always check the dry matter basis on which the results are given - many cases this is as-fed. Correct for moisture level; divide by the decimal dry matter. eg. 1 ppm on 30% dry matter basis is 1 / 0.3 = 3.3 ppm DM.
- Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada guidelines for DON (Vomitoxin)
in animal feeds are:
- pigs, calves, lambs, lactating cows and lactating ewes, 1 ppm in the diet,
- adult cattle, adult sheep and poultry, 5 ppm in the diet.
- United States FDA guidelines for DON (Vomitoxin) in feeds in
the US are:
- 10 ppm in grains and by-products fed to chickens, ruminating beef and feedlot cattle older than 4 months. Maximum ingredient level 50% of total ration. (ie. 5 ppm in the final ration).
- 5 ppm in ingredients for swine with a maximum inclusion rate of 20% of total ration. (ie. 1 ppm in the final ration).
- 5 ppm in ingredients for all other animals with a maximum inclusion of 40% of the ration. (ie. 2 ppm in the final ration).
- Pennsylvania State University suggested guidelines on mycotoxin
levels in feeds are (Adapted from Penn State)
Total Ration (on a Dry Matter basis)MycotoxinConcern Level1
Cattle (ppm) Swine (ppm) DON/Vomitoxin0.562.5 to 6.00.6 to 1.0 Zearalenone0.563.9 to 7.00.6 to 3.9 T-20.250.7 to 1.50.7 to 1.5 HT-20.251.5 to 3.01.5 to 3.0
- Notes on the Penn State University table:
- 1Concern level: Indicates favourable conditions for mycotoxin production. May require further testing, especially if moderate symptoms are present. Limit the amount of suspect feed fed if performance and/or health symptoms persist. Discontinue use if severe production decreases occur and/or acute clinical symptoms appear.
- Potentially Harmful: Mycotoxins at these levels suggest toxin involvement in depressed performance and/or acute clinical symptoms. Discontinue feeding, at least temporarily, sample and test.
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