Dairy Cow Comfort Tie-stall
- Cow Dimensions
- Space Requirements
- Stall Dimensions as Ratios of Body Dimensions
- Tie Rail (Head Rail) Location
- Tie Chain - Length & Safety
- Wide Opening - Forward or Diagonal Lunge
- Manger Curb
- Manger Height & Surface
- Water Bowls
- Platform - Length & Slope
- Stall Bed or Cushion
- Loops or Dividers & Stall Width
- End stalls
- Stall height
- Gutter & Walk Alley
- Electric Cow Trainers
- Reading List & Dimensions at a Glance
- Diagram - Tie-stall Dimensions
Cow measurements and their space requirements are needed to design
stalls. Stall dimensions must be appropriate for standing, lying,
rising and resting without injury, pain or fear. Stalls must meet
the needs of the cow for comfort and the caregiver for cleanliness
and ease of milking. This document describes cow dimensions, space
requirements and tie-stall dimensions for modern Canadian Holstein
cows. The concepts shown in Table 1 and Table 2 may be used to design
stalls for Holstein heifers or other dairy breeds.
2. Cow Dimensions
- Cows vary in size between and within herds. The first step in
planning stall size is the measurement of Lactation 1 and mature
cows in your herd.
- Rump heights and hook-bone widths are useful measures to estimate
several other body dimensions. Since several body dimensions are
proportional, ratios provide reasonable estimates of dimensions
for calves, heifers or other dairy breeds.
- Stalls may be built in three sizes (sized for Lactation 1 heifers,
milking cows and dry or special-needs cows) in recognition of
the variation in cow size and their needs within a herd.
- Measure a sample of small, medium and large cows.
- A barn with one stall size poses several challenges to both
management and cows. Stall and cow cleanliness, labor, mastitis,
foot diseases and cow comfort are issues to consider in choosing
Figure 1. Variation in cow size within and between
herds highlights the need to measure your cows before choosing stall
Figure 2. Several cow measurements taken on standing
cows are useful for designing stalls. Other essential measurements
are imprint length and imprint width.
Table 1 shows measurements of mature Canadian Holsteins at a local
dairy herd and some calculated proportions. For example, mature
cows had a rump height of 60 inches, a nose-to-tail length of 8.5
feet and a hook-bone width of 25 inches. Their weight exceeded 1,550
Table 1. Body dimensions, example measurements for
and estimated ratios to rump height and hook-bone
||102 (range 96-110)
||1.6 x rump height
|Imprint length -resting
||1.2 x rump height
||2 + x hook-bone width
|Forward lunge space
||0.4 x rump height
|Stride length when rising
||0.3 x rump height
|Rump height - mature
||Median 60 (range 58-64)
|Rump height -Lactation 1
||Median 58, top 25% - 59
|Stance - front-to-rear feet
||60 (range 58-64)
||1.0 x rump height
|Withers (shoulder) height
||60 (range 58-64)
||1.0 x rump height
||26 (range 24-27)
3. Space Requirements
- A 1350 lb cow uses 118 inches longitudinal space and 43 inches
lateral space when lying. (UBC research)
- Observations of cows freely lying and rising reveal that a mature
Canadian Holstein cow uses 102 x 52 inches of living space and
another 20 (16 to 24) inches of forward space for lunging motions.
Figures 2 & 3 show several cow dimensions that define this
Figure 3. Imprint length extends from the folded
foreknee to the tail (arrows). This length defines the bed length.
- Nose-to-tail length describes the measurement from the tail
to the nose of a cow standing with her head forward. A cow has
a normal crook in her neck when lying and her nose-to-tail length
is less than while standing.
- Imprint length describes the length from folded foreknee to
tail while lying in the narrow position. It defines the bed length
needed for resting with all body parts on the stall. Imprint length
is greater when the cow extends her front legs forward in normal
(long) resting positions.
- When resting in the narrow position, the point of the hock on
the upper hind leg and the extension of the abdomen on the opposite
side define the imprint width. This width is the minimum stall
width for a resting cow. However, for improved comfort, most new
tie-stall barns are being built with stalls wider than the imprint
width of a cow in the narrow resting position.
Figure 4. For the rear view of the cow in the photo,
imprint width extends from the left hock to the right abdomen -
a distance of about 52 inches for this cow. It increases when the
rear legs extend outwards or the cow reclines in wide resting positions.
Figure 5. While rising freely on pasture, a cow uses
the forward, downward and vertical space outlined by the white lines
in the photograph. While rising, this cow lunged forward about 22%
of her resting nose-to-tail length.
- Lunging space is the room needed for lying and rising motions
and it extends forward, downward and upward for head lunge and
bob, vertically and forward for standing, and laterally for hindquarter
- Knowledge of lunging space is needed to properly size the opening
at the front of tie stalls, position tie rails, choose the shape
and dimensions of stall dividers and avoid hazards when turning
out of stalls.
- A cow's nose uses the space 4 - 12 inches above the surface
when lying or rising.
4. Stall Dimensions as Ratios of Body Dimensions
- Although nose-to-tail length is essential, it is a difficult
dimension to gather. Hook-bone width and rump height are easy
to measure and since many body dimensions are proportional; these
two cow dimensions are useful references for sizing stalls.
- Table 2 shows stall dimensions, estimated relationships to
body dimensions and example calculations for mature Holsteins
in a study herd.
- Figure 18, at the end of this document, shows a tie-rail stall
and example dimensions.
- Measure your cows before choosing stall sizes.
Table 2. Stall dimensions, estimated relationships
to body dimensions and example calculations for mature Holsteins
in a study herd.
Ratio and Reference
a median cow
|Bed length = imprint length
||1.2 x rump height
||1.2 x 60 = 72 in.
|Tie rail height above cow's feet
||0.80 x rump height
||0.80 x 60 = 48 in.
|*Stall width =imprint width +
||2.0 x hook-bone width
||2 x 26 = 52 in.
* Producers are building most new tie stalls wider
than this minimum width. They mount loops on 54 inch centres to
provide 50 inches of width.
5. Tie Rail (Head Rail) Location
- A tie rail (sometimes called a head rail) is the pipe used as
the attachment for the tie chain.
- A tie rail controls the forward location of a cow while she
stands in the stall.
- The standing surface (e.g., mat, mattress) is the reference
for vertical placement of the tie rail.
- The vertical location above the bed may be about 0.8 x rump
- In practice, the tie rail may be mounted 44 to 48 inches higher
than the top surface of the bed.
- The tie rail forward location is a horizontal measurement from
the gutter curb.
- The tie rail mounts 8 to 12 inches forward of the centre of
the manger curb and over the manger.
- A tie rail placed 86 inches horizontally forward of the gutter
curb allows cows with about 58 to 60- inch rump height to stand
straight in the stall.
- Proper location of the tie rail lets a cow stand parallel to
the dividers with all four feet in the stall and rise or lie with
minimal or no contact with it.
- Measure vertical placement from the concrete platform during
construction and allow for the bed.
- Standing in the gutter, diagonal standing or neck injuries
are obvious signs of incorrect placement or obstructions at the
front of the stall.
- Injuries to the sensitive supraspinous processes of the neck
may occur with tie rails located higher than 48-50 inches and
when cows reach for feed.
- Injuries to supraspinous processes may be avoided by mounting
the tie rail lower and keeping feed within reach.
- The distance between the manger curb and the tie rail may be
ample enough to allow a cow to pass through without entrapment.
- The tie rail often acts as the water line.
Figure 6. The stalls have a wide opening, a higher
tie rail and longer chain for ease of lunging, rising and lying.
6. Tie Chain - Length & Safety
- A tie chain confines a cow to her stall space and allows for
ease of lunging, resting in the head back position, or grooming.
- A tie chain with snap should extend only to the height of the
- Prevent entrapment of a leg by installing the proper length
- Orient the "tails" of the bracket to extend fore
and aft rather than downwards and upwards.
- Longer chains give cows freedom to show strong signs of estrous.
- Shorten (e.g., wrap the chain around the tie rail) the chain
temporarily (12 to 24 hours) while a cow is in heat.
7. Wide Opening - Forward or Diagonal Lunge
- When rising or lying normally, a mature Holstein uses about
10 feet of space measured from her tail to her most forward lunge
- Provide unobstructed forward space for frontward lunging and
bobbing of the head - therefore, the wide opening and attention
to curb height.
- Obstructions in the lunging space lead to diagonal (corner-to-corner)
standing, lying and rising. Cows still lunge forward relative
to their body direction, but diagonal or sidewise to the stall.
- For side lunging, choose a divider with an opening wide enough
to permit easy lunging for rising or lying.
Figure 7. A cow-friendly manger curb has beveled
corners. A high curb may obstruct forward extension of the legs.
To get room for this normal behaviour, cows lie diagonally in their
stalls with their front legs stretched into the neighboring bed.
8. Manger Curb
- A manger curb defines the forward limit of the bed length measured
from the gutter curb.
- Manger curbs keep bedding out of feed and feed in the manger.
- Build the curb height 10 to 12 inches - measured from the concrete
platform - for mattress stalls.(may be higher for sand stalls)
- Final curb height should be 8 inches higher than a cow's feet
(e.g., top of mattress or mat with bedding, or sand).
- Avoid curbs higher than 12 inches. The height of the manger
curb (and the manger surface) must not interfere with forward
- Curb height on the manger side will be 4 to 6 inches higher
than the manger surface.
- Although curb height interferes with the normal stride taken
during rising, some cows stride into the manger. A slippery surface
poses a hazard.
- A concrete curb is built 6 inches wide to support posts.
- Concrete and wood are the most common materials used to build
- Cows will extend their legs forward into the manger and rest
with their necks on the curb.
- Bevel, smooth or round the curb edges on the cow and manger
- A flat manger surface and a wooden curb may save the cost of
forming and pouring a concrete curb. With this technique, producers
attach a board (e.g., 2 x 4 or 2 x 6) to the posts that support
the stall dividers.
Figure 8. The design of the manger curb can make
the leg- forward posture a more comfortable resting experience.
9. Manger Height and Surface
- The height of the manger surface (feed table) is relative to
the cow's feet on the bed.
- Manger height is chosen to minimize pressure on the soles of
claws, maximize foot health and make eating more comfortable for
- Manger height should allow for nearly normal lunging motions
with minor compromises for bobbing the head.
- Cows choose to kneel to eat when the manger is level with or
lower than their feet. or when the tie rail is too low.
- Build the manger surface 4 inches higher than the level of
the cow's feet (top of the mattress or bedding). This will be
about 6 to 7 inches measured from the concrete platform.
- Build the 'eating' surface about 24-inches wide.
- Choose an acid-resistant and relatively smooth surface.
- Slippery surfaces are a hazard for workers.
- Ceramic tile, plastic or special concrete are common surfaces
for mangers. Each provides benefits, challenges or hazards for
- Keep feed within 24-inches of the manger curb.
- An elevated feed alley keeps feed closer to cows, reduces reaching-for-feed
and stepping-forward, minimizes injuries to necks or manure contamination
of beds, and reduces labour for pushing up feed.
10. Water Bowls
- Nose-to-poll length establishes the space required for access
to a water bowl. This length is about 24 inches for mature Holstein
- Provide greater than 24 inches of space from the top of the
water bowl to any obstruction above it.
- An obstruction may be a tie rail, manger divide, or stall divider,
depending upon location of the water bowl.
- Tie rails mounted 44, 46 or 48 inches above the bed allow us
to mount water bowls over the manger and to provide >24
inches above the bowl for drinking and adequate space below the
bowl for cleaning mangers.
- The bowl may be placed within a manger divide over the manger
when there is 24 inches of unobstructed space above the bowl.
- Dominant cows may keep submissive cows away from the water
bowl. A hinged panel within a manger divide is one man's solution
to the problem. Other solutions include a bowl on each side or
moving the cow to another stall.
- Do not mount the water bowl above the tie rail.
- The risk of wet bedding, mastitis, or slippery beds is greater
with bowls over the stall platform.
- Size the water line for peak flow. Often a 2 to 3 inch line
will be large enough.
Figure 9. The distance from the top of the water
bowl to the vertical obstruction is greater than the nose to poll
length of the cows. This assures easy access to water. There is
also adequate space below the bowl for sweeping the mangers.
11. Platform - Length & Slope
- The length of the stall platform is the distance from the gutter
curb to the manger curb.
- Use imprint length of the resting cow as a guide for determining
- Platform length should allow cows to rest parallel to the dividers
in the short position with tail and legs on the bed.
- Consider a 70-inch platform for Lactation 1 heifers that have
a rump height of 58 to 59 inches.
- Consider a 72-inch platform for mature Holstein cows measuring
60 inches at the rump.
- In practice, bed or platform length ranges from 68 to 72 inches.
Some producers have built longer beds for cows standing >60
inches at the rump.
- For stalls with mattresses or mats, measure bed length from
the gutter curb to the manger curb.
- For stalls with bedding keepers and scant bedding, measure
bed length from the inside of the keeper to the manger curb. Measure
bed length from the gutter side of the bedding keeper when the
bedding keeper is kept covered with bedding.
- The minimum platform length described above will not permit
cows to lie straight with their forelegs extended. They will lie
diagonally or lie with their rumps over the gutter to attain this
normal resting posture. However, stalls are seldom built with
longer beds because they pose challenges with stall and cow cleanliness
and the risk of mastitis.
- Build a slope of two to three percent into the concrete platform
(higher at the front). (e.g., about 1.5 to 2.0 inches in a 72
- Build a slope into the interior of the barn from one end to
the other to keep the milk line the same height above the platform.
12. Stall Bed or Cushion
- Concrete platforms require a cushion for a resting surface.
- Ample bedding is a best management practice in the Dairy Code.
- Cows need a cushioning surface with good traction to avoid injuries.
- Obstructions to normal resting positions and choices in beds
or bedding contribute to restlessness and hock blemishes or injuries.
- Rubber-filled or gel-filled mattresses, foam mats with rubber
top covers, mats of various compositions, and organic (straw,
sawdust, peat moss) or inorganic (sand) bedding provide varying
degrees of cushioning for the stall platform.
- Mattresses or mats have a limited life expectancy for softness
and require replacement after a few years in service.
- Cover mattresses or mats with chopped straw, sawdust, kiln-dried
softwood shavings, or peat moss.
- Consider absorption (dryness) and traction when choosing bedding.
- Hardwood shavings or wood chips are unacceptable bedding materials.
- Solid mats provide varying amounts of cushioning. They require
a very generous (e.g., >3 inches) cover with bedding.
- Some mattresses or mats allow a 'basin' to form that collects
urine and milk. This results in wet teats, udders and flanks and
a hazard for mastitis.
- Some mats or top covers are slippery and become slipperier
with straw and moisture.
- Water bowls mounted over the bed can contribute to wetness
and slipperiness in the stall.
- Poor traction with one foot on a slippery bed and the other
on ceramic tile in a manger may contribute to a falling-forward
hazard while rising or reaching feed.
Figure 10. Stalls with ample width and length allow
freedom to rest in normal positions. A longer chain allows a cow
to rest in the head back position, more freedom to rise, groom,
and show visible signs of estrous.
13. Loops or Dividers and Stall Width
- Loops or dividers define the width of the stall space for each
- Use imprint width to determine minimum stall width (about two
times hook-bone width).
- Since minimum width prevents cows from resting in wider positions,
producers build stalls wider than the minimum.
- Producers are building tie stalls wider than you may find in
free stall barns.
- Mount dividers on 54-inch centres for average- sized mature
Holstein cows. (gives 52 inches of space)
- In practice, loops are being mounted on 50- to 60- inch centres
to provide 48 to 58 inches of space, depending upon cow size or
- Mount a loop on each side of a stall space.
- This prevents cows from swinging widely, contaminating beds
with manure or urine, or tramping on teats.
- Choose a loop design for ease of use by the cow when exiting
the stall or the worker when moving milkers between adjacent stalls.
Generally, this is a loop with the rear part of the top pipe lower
than the forward part of the top pipe.
- Choose a loop that provides 30-inches of space at the back
of the stall. (e.g., a 42-inch loop for 72- inch platforms) Cows
need this space to back into while turning to exit a stall safely.
- Provide 12 inches of space between the top of the bed and the
bottom pipe of the divider to avoid entrapment of a cow's head.
- Mount the supports for milking equipment to the posts. This
allows a cow to swing her head easily over the loop without obstructions.
- Ontario companies manufacture support posts that allow adjustment
of the height of the tie rail, loop or water bowl.
Figure 11. The divider separates cows in adjacent
stalls. This divider leaves about 30 inches of space for cows to
back into an adjacent stall when exiting. The top pipe drops down
at the back so a cow can easily swing her head over it. This style
is suitable for herds feeding total mixed rations.
14. End Stalls
- An end stall must provide space for backing around with the
rump, swinging the head for turning out of the stall, and resting
- Use a stall divider (loop) for the end partition.
- Use a section of brisket locator or plastic pipe as an end
- Use the post for mounting milk and vacuum lines.
- Vertical and horizontal pipes in end stalls obstruct normal
backing or head swinging motions. They may contribute to slips
or falls while attempting to cross the gutter when cows exit the
- Concrete curbs in end stalls are hazards for injuries to hook
bones when resting.
- Concrete curbs restrict normal leg postures for resting cows.
- Cows avoid end stalls with obstructions when re- entering the
barn after being out for exercise.
Figure 12. An end stall with obstructions to turning
poses a challenge and a hazard for cows exiting the stall.
Figure 13. An end stall built for ease of exit by
the cow provides space for backing or swinging her head. The smooth
plastic curb allows her to stretch her hind legs to the right and
is less likely to injure body parts than concrete.
15. Stall Height
- Stall height is the difference in elevation between the walkway
and the stall platform.
- Stall height affects cow and worker safety or comfort.
- Build the stall platform level with or two inches higher than
- Consider ease of entry or exit for cows and avoidance of cows
jumping across gutters.
- Consider ease of entry or exit for workers (e.g., ergonomics,
fatigue, or longevity).
- Consider ease of doing reproductive examinations and artificial
insemination - ergonomics for technicians and veterinarians.
- Consider the depth of the gutter and frequency of gutter cleaning
to avoid overflow of slurry onto walkways or beds.
16. Gutter and Walk Alley
- The width of the gutter must be less than the step length of
- Step length of a cow varies with traction (slipperiness of the
floor), lameness and cow size.
- The walk alley and bed must provide good traction.
- Build the gutters wide enough to accommodate 18-inch flites
on a gutter cleaner.
- Gutter grates provide a visual clue to cows crossing a gutter
and help keep tails out of slurry.
- Tail ties help keep tails out of slurry.
- Crown the walk alley one inch from centre to gutter.
- Choose a rubber with excellent elasticity and traction for
the walk alley.
Figure 14. For cow and worker safety, comfort and
ergonomics, stall height may be 2-3 inches higher than the walk
17. Electric Cow Trainers
- Electric trainers will train cows to step back when arching
their backs for defecation or urination.
- The purpose is to position cows so they defecate or urinate
in the gutter rather than the stall bed.
- Electric trainers must not restrict the normal eating, standing
or lying behaviour of cows.
- Trainers must not restrict access to feed or water.
- Position the trainer 48 inches (e.g., range 47 to 49 inches,
horizontal measurement) forward of the gutter curb for Holsteins
in stalls with 68- to 72- inch platforms.
- Position the trainer 42 inches (e.g., range 41 to 43 inches)
forward of the gutter curb for Jerseys in stalls with 62- to 66-inch
- Position the trainer about 2 inches above the chine for training
purposes (about 24 hours).
- Raise the trainer to about 4 inches above the chine after the
- The trainer may be lowered to 2 inches for remedial training
(24 hours) and then raised again to 4 inches above the chine.
- The trainer must have a height adjustment and a fore and aft
adjustment for each cow.
- Trainers must have secure attachment so they do not fall upon
- The distance between the trainer bow and the cow must be at
least 2 inches.
- The cow trainer bow must be raised to a higher position when
a cow is expected to be or is in heat.
- The power supply must be of low voltage (e.g., 2,500) and power
output (e.g., 0.1 to 0.2 Joules).
- The power supply must be grounded to a dedicated rod outside
the barn and not to any stabling within the barn.
- The proper placement of trainers contributes directly to stall
and cow cleanliness and indirectly to udder health and claw health.
- Properly installed and maintained electric trainers are essential
components of the stall unit.
Figure 15. The location of the trainer must have
priority over the location of the milk and vacuum lines.
- Cleanliness may be a challenge because cows step forward while
eating and may defecate during the time they are standing forward.
- Incorrectly positioned trainers prevent a cow from showing
strong signs of heat, making heat detection difficult and contributing
to poor reproductive performance.
- Incorrectly positioned trainers force cows to eat while on
- Incorrectly positioned electric trainers make cows urinate
or defecate without arching their back.
- The location of the milk and vacuum lines must not interfere
with the correct location for the trainer. The trainer has priority.
- The directions for installation should include the indications
Figure 16. The trainer is located at the chine and
slightly ahead of the point where the back begins to arch when a
cow defecates or urinates. The trainers should be located at least
two inches (five cm) above the chine. (Illustration courtesy of
G. Rietveld, OMAFRA)
- Diet and consistency of manure affect stall cleanliness and
usefulness of electric trainers.
- The posture and the arc in her spine of a defecating cow vary
with feeds and feeding husbandry.
- Generally, a diet of dry hay and some corn silage leads to
firm manure - and an arc in the spine during defecation.
- There may be no arc in the spine and very slight elevation
of the tail with diets that predispose cows to diarrhea.
- Cow cleanliness concerns and apparent failure of trainers may
be corrected by feeding for firmer manure and regaining the arced
posture for defecation.
Figure 17. The trainer is located safely above the
cow's chine when she stands back in the stall, arches her back and
urinates in the gutter.
18. Reading List
Anderson N. Observations on dairy cow comfort: diagonal lunging,
resting standing and perching in free stalls. Proc Am Soc Agric
Eng Dairy Housing Conf 2003, 26-34.
Anderson N. Repetitive trauma to the nuchal ligament-gall, callus,
hygroma and bursitis. Ceptor 2003, 11:5-7. Available at http://oabp.ca/Ceptor/2013/Ceptor%20July.pdf
Bergsten C, Pettersson B. The cleanliness of cows tied in stalls
and the health of their hooves as influenced by the use of electric
trainers. Prev Vet Med 1992, 13(4):229-238.
Ceballos A, Sanderson D, Rushen J, Weary DM. Improving stall design:
Use of 3-D kinematics to measure space use by dairy cows when lying
down. J Dairy Sci 2004, 87(7):2042-2050.
Chaplin S, Munksgaard L. Evaluation of a simple method for assessment
of rising behaviour in tethered dairy cows. Ani Sci 2001, 72:191-197.
Ekesbo I. Disease incidence in tied and loose housed dairy cattle.
Acta Agric Scand 1966, 15s:74. Gjestang KE. Feeding table geometry
in relation to dairy cow comfort. Proc International Livestock Environment
Symposium. 1982, 433-437.
Haley D, Passille A, Rushen J. Assessing cow comfort: effects
of two-floor types and two tie stall designs on the behaviour of
lactating dairy cows. Appl Anim Behav Sci 2001, 71(2):105-117.
Hultgren J. A preliminary study of behavioural methods for assessing
the influence of electric cow-trainers on animal health. Vet Res
Communications. 1991, 15(4):291-300.
Oltenacu PA, Hultgren J, Algers B. Associations between use of
electric cow-trainers and clinical diseases, reproductive performance
and culling in Swedish dairy cattle. Prev Vet Med 1998, 37(1-4):77-90.
Oswald T. Der Kuhtrainer. 1992. Is the cow trainer compatible
with proper stock keeping? ISBN 3-9520182-3-6.
Rushen J, Haley D, de Passille AM. Effect of softer flooring in
tie stalls on resting behavior and leg injuries of lactating cows.
J Dairy Sci 2007, 90(8):3647-3651.
Tucker CB, Weary DM. Bedding on geotextile mattresses: how much
is needed to improve cow comfort? J Dairy Sci 2004, 87(9):2889-2895.
Zurbrigg K, Kelton D, Anderson N, Millman M. Stall dimensions and
the prevalence of lameness, injury, and cleanliness on 317 tie-stall
dairy farms in Ontario. Can Vet J 2005, 46(10):902-09.
Zurbrigg K, Kelton D, Anderson N, Millman S. Tie- stall design
and its relationship to lameness, injury, and cleanliness on 317
Ontario dairy farms. J Dairy Sci 2005, 88(9):3201-3210.
Table 3. Dimensions at a Glance
- Height from concrete platform (add cushion)
- Height from stall cushion (cow's feet) 44, 46, 48 in
- Forward from centre of manger curb 8 - 12 inches
- Forward from gutter curb ~ 86 inches
- Length - Lactation 1 - 70 inches
- Length - Mature cows - 72 inches
- Slope - 2% or 1.5 to 2 inches in 6 feet
- Height above walkway - 2 inches
- Length - top of manger curb
- Includes the snap
- 54 inch centres
- range 50 to 60 (cow size, special needs)
- Height from concrete platform 12 inches
- Height from stall bed or cushion 8 inches
- Height from feed table (manger) 4 to 6 inches
- Fee Width - 6 inches
Loops or Dividers
- 30 inches shorter than platform
Electric trainer (Holsteins)
- 48 inches forward of gutter curb
- Range 47 to 49 inches
Feed table - manger surface
- Width 24 inches
- Height 4 inches above bed surface
- Depth - 16 inches
- Width - 18 inches
Figure 18. The diagram shows a tie stall with a head
rail. The table shows variations in stall dimensions for Holstein
cows - First Lactation, Milking and Dry Cows. Nonetheless, it's
good advice to measure your cows before deciding on stall sizes.
(Courtesy of Harold House, OMAFRA)