Withdrawal Times for Medicines Used in Deer

In Canada, there are no drugs approved for use in cervids except the newly introduced wormer Eprinex. In the USA, only xylazine hydrochloride, yohimbine hydrochloride, carfentanil citrate and naltrexone are approved for cervids (Drew 1997). The usage of drugs in Canada is regulated under the Bureau of Veterinary Drugs. Drugs, for use in animals, are either prescription or over-the-counter drugs. Prescription drugs are those that can be obtained and used only on the written or verbal order of a veterinarian. Over-the-counter drugs are those that can be purchased and used without a prescription.

The use of all drugs not licensed for use in deer is considered extra-label. Only a veterinarian can authorize extra-label use of drugs. It is illegal for deer producers to use either prescription drugs for unlabelled uses or over-the-counter drugs for extra-label purposes unless those drugs are prescribed or dispensed by a licensed veterinarian in the presence of a valid veterinarian/ client/patient relationship. Use of a Medication Inventory Form will help producers and veterinarians to develop an organized approach to using medicines in a responsible manner.

Withdrawal times vary tremendously from jurisdiction to jurisdiction and between animal species. It is the veterinarian's responsibility to assign an appropriate withdrawal time for a drug when used in an extra-label manner. The following summary of withdrawal times is provided to help veterinarians when prescribing medications for use in deer.

Base Product

Route and Dosage (from the reference)

Country and Withdrawal (days)

References

Albendazole
Oral
7.5 mg/kg Roundworms, Tapeworms
10 mg/kg Flukes
NZ - deer - 7
Australia - deer - 10
Canada, USA - cattle - 27
UK - cattle - 14; sheep - 3 to 10
NZMAF 1998
English 1988
Bayley 1999,
Plumb 1999
Bishop 1998
Febantel
Oral 7.5 mg/kg NZ - premix deer - 14
NZ - suspension deer - 21
UK - cattle - 35; sheep - 14
NZMAF 1994
NZMAF 1994
Bishop 1998
Fenbendazole
Oral 7.5 mg/kg single dose (dosage depends on preparation) NZ - deer - 4 to 14
Canada - cattle - 8 to 13
USA - cattle and wildlife - 8 to 14
UK - cattle - 14 to 28
NZMAF 1998
Bayley 1999
Plumb 1999
Bishop 1998
Oxfendazole
Oral 4.5 mg/kg single dose NZ - deer - 10 to 14
UK - cattle and sheep - 14 to 28
NZMAF 1998
Bishop 1998
Levamisole
SQ injection, oral 7.5 mg/kg
Pour-on 10 mg/kg
Australia - deer - 3
USA - injectable - cattle - 7
Canada - pour-on - cattle - 10
UK - oral, SQ - cattle, sheep - 7 to 28; pour-on - 21 to 42
English 1988
Bayley 1999
Plumb 1999
Bishop 1998,
NOAH 1999
Bishop 1998
Doramectin


SQ or IM injection 200 micrograms/kg Canada - cattle - 40
USA - cattle - 35
UK - cattle - 42
Bayley 1999
Plumb 1999
Bishop 1998
Pour-on 500 micrograms/kg Canada - cattle - 55
UK - cattle - 35
Bayley 1999
Bishop 1998
Ivermectin
Pour-on 500 micrograms/kg NZ - deer - 28; cattle - 35
Canada - cattle - 49
UK - cattle - 28
NZMAF 1998
Bayley 1999
Bishop 1998
SQ injection 200 micrograms/kg
(no data when used at 400 micrograms/kg or greater)
NZ - deer - not licensed
Canada - cattle - 49
USA, UK - cattle - 35

USA - bison, reindeer - 56
NZMAF 1998
Bayley 1999
Plumb 1999, Bishop 1998
Plumb 1999
Eprinomectin
Pour-on 500 micrograms/kg NZ - deer - 14; cattle - 14
Canada - cattle, deer - 0
UK - cattle - 21
NZMAF 1998
Bayley 1999
Bishop 1998
Moxidectin
Pour-on 500 micrograms/kg
NZ - deer - 21; cattle - 28
Australia - deer - 7
Canada - cattle - 36
USA - cattle - 0
UK - cattle - 14
NZMAF 1998
Jacobs* 1999
Jacobs 1999
Plumb 1999
Bishop 1998
Tetracycline long-acting
IM 20 mg/kg NZ - deer - 21
UK - red deer - 28
NZMAF 1998
Bishop 1998
Atropine
SQ 0.03 - 0.06 mg/kg UK - cattle - 14 Craigmill 1998
Carfentanil combination with xylazine
IM 0.005 - 0.02 mg/kg
Wildnil (Carfentanil, in Canada, licensed for wildlife up to 30 days prior to hunting season)

NZ - deer - 7

Bayley 1999

Bayley 1999,
USA
NZMAF 1998

Fentazin 5 Contran H
IM
Reversal agent for Fentazin 5
NZ - deer - 3
NZ - deer - 1
NZMAF 1998
Ketamine HCI
IM Up to 10 mg/kg France, Switzerland - cattle - 0 - 1
USA - FARAD - cattle - 3
Craigmill 1997
Craigmill 1997
Ketamine/xylazine combination
IV or IM. No combination drugs licensed in Canada NZ - deer - 5 NZMAF 1998
Lidocaine HCL
Local injection - infiltration USA - FARAD - 1
UK - cattle - 28
Craigmill 1997
Bishop 1998
Ferdinand 1996
Xylazine 2%, 5%, 10%
IM Up to 2 mg/kg
Only Rompun ® 20 mg/ml is licensed for cattle in Canada.
Canada - cattle - 3
UK - cattle - 14
NZ - deer - 2 to 3
USA - products licenced for deer but not for food producing animals - FARAD - deer - 14
Bayley 1999
Bishop 1998
NZMAF 1998
Craigmill 1997
Yohimbine HCL
IV Up to 0.3 mg/kg NZ - deer - 1
USA - FARAD - cattle - 7
NZMAF 1998
Craigmill 1997
Vaccines
Refer to label USA, Canada - livestock - 21 -
unless stated otherwise on label
Plumb 1999
*S. Jacobs, pers.commun.,1999

References

Bayley, A. 1999. Compendium of Veterinary Products. 5th Edition. North American Compendiums Inc., Port Huron, MI.

Bayley, A. 1999. Compendium of Veterinary Products. 6th Edition. North American Compendiums Ltd. Hensall, Ontario

Bishop, Y. 1998. The Veterinary Formulary. University Press, London, England.

Craigmill, A.L., M. Rangel-Lugo, P. Damian, AND J. Riviere. Extra label use of tranquillizers and general anaesthetics. J. of the Am. Med. Assoc. 211 (3): 302-304.

Drew, Mark L. Legal and Logical Drug Use: The effects of the Animal Medicinal Drug Use Clarification Act of 1994 (AMDUCA). In: Annual Compilation of Papers on the Health and Disease of Small Ruminants. American Association of Small Ruminant Practitioners.Nashvill, TN p. 17-22.

English, A.W. Diseases of deer. 1988. In: The T. G. Hungerford Vade Mecum Series for Domestic Animals, Control and Therapy, Series A, University of Sydney Post Graduate Foundation in Veterinary Science. No. 11

Fedinand, G. 1996. Lidocaine: withdrawal time. Update. May/June: 8.

NOAH (National Office of Animal Health Ltd.) 1999. Compendium of Data Sheets of Veterinary Products 1999-2000. Enfield, Middlesex, United Kingdom.

NZMAF (New Zealand Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries). 1994. Registered Animal Remedies for Use in Deer as of 19 December 94, Wallaceville Research Centre, New Zealand.

NZMAF (New Zealand Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries). 1998. Registered Animal Remedies for Use in Deer as of 06 May 98, Wallaceville Research Centre, New Zealand.

Plumb, D.C. 1999. Veterinary Drug Handbook. 3rd Edition. Iowa State University Press, Ames, IA.

Related Links


For more information:
Toll Free: 1-877-424-1300
E-mail: ag.info.omafra@ontario.ca
Author: Dr. Bob Wright - Veterinary Scientist, Equine and Alternative Livestock/OMAFRA
Creation Date: December 1999
Last Reviewed: 28 September 2015