Foods of Plant Origin
|Soil Type||Solubility||Ease of Removal|
|Starch||Water, Alkali||Easy to Moderately Easy|
Moderately alkaline cleaners include disodium carbonate, sodium metasilicate and tri-sodium phosphate (TSP). Carbonate-based detergents have limited use in food processing plants because they interact with calcium and magnesium to form highly insoluble compounds. Silicates are most often included in cleaners to inhibit corrosion. TSP has a long history of effectiveness against organic soils. Water conditioners, corrosion inhibitors, and wetting or emulsifying agents may also be formulated into cleaners.
Highly alkaline detergents (e.g., caustic soda/sodium hydroxide, caustic potash/potassium hydroxide) are used in many circulating clean-in-place (CIP) systems.
Fresh soils are more easily dissolved than old, dried-on deposits. Using too hot water or improper cleaners can "set" soils, making them more difficult to remove. Working promptly with the proper cleaner will ease soil removal.
Inorganic soils are soluble in acid chemicals. Cleaners such as nitric, phosphoric and muriatic acids are used to remove hard-water scale, mineral deposits, rust and films left by incomplete rinsing of alkaline cleaners.
Surface composition influences the effectiveness of different cleaning and sanitizing chemicals. Although 300 series stainless steel or food-grade plastic is the recommended surface for food production, other surfaces are sometimes used.
300 series stainless steel is corrosion resistant, durable and easy to clean. However, prolonged use of strong acidic cleaners in combination with chlorine may damage stainless steel. 400 series stainless steel is more prone to corrosion than is 300 series.
|Stainless steel||Use non-abrasive acidic and alkaline cleaners; do not use hydrochloric acid or chlorides; corrosive properties vary with grade.|
|Plastic||More corrosion resistant than stainless steel; resistant to chlorine; may crack or cloud from prolonged exposure to strong acidic or alkaline cleaners; easily scratched.|
|Nylon||Do not use acidic cleaners|
|Rubber||Deteriorates with constant use of chlorine; use alkaline cleaners|
|Brass, copper, mild steel||All less corrosion resistant than stainless steel; acidic cleaners encourage steel rusting; use moderately alkaline cleaners with corrosion inhibitors|
|Aluminum||Readily attacked by acidic and highly alkaline cleaners, use only soft metal-safe moderately alkaline cleaners|
|Wood||Should not be used in food applications; where used, clean with detergents containing surfactants|
|Iron Drains||Acidic cleaners are corrosive; use moderately alkaline cleaners|
|Painted surfaces||Use moderately alkaline cleaners|
|Concrete||Use alkaline cleaners|
Food-grade plastics are smooth and impervious. However, effective cleaning may become difficult if the surface becomes scratched, pitted or scored. When a pitted, cracked, corroded or rough surface reaches the point that it can no longer be effectively cleaned or sanitized, it should be replaced.
Wood is easily damaged, creating cracks and crevices that harbour microorganisms. Wood should be cleaned with an abrasive cleaner and sanitized well. The use of wood is not recommended for food contact surfaces or in areas of prolonged water exposure.
Iron-based alloys (e.g., carbon steel) are prone to rusting. Acidic cleaning compounds encourage rust formation, as do chlorine sanitizers. Only neutral cleaners should be used on iron-based or galvanized surfaces. Tin surfaces are sometimes an alloy of tin and lead, so their use is not recommended because exposure to lead is known to have adverse effects on human health.
Painted surfaces have different characteristics depending upon the paint used. OMAFRA does not recommend painting food contact surfaces. Regardless of the surface painted, only paint acceptable to the Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) should be used.
Acids and acid cleaners corrode concrete floors, so only alkaline cleaners should be used. Pitted or cracked concrete floors should be sealed with coating acceptable to the CFIA.
A list of acceptable paints and floor coatings may be accessed by contacting your local CFIA office.
Chemical cleaners may be applied manually, in a soak solution, as a low-pressure wash or using an automated CIP system. Each application method has advantages and disadvantages. Most food processing facilities use a combination of these procedures.
Water makes up 95 to 99 per cent of cleaning and sanitizing solutions. It carries cleaner and sanitizer to the surface and carries contamination away from the surface. Water impurities can drastically alter the effectiveness of a detergent or sanitizer.
Water used for food processing, cleaning and sanitizing activities must be potable (must meet Ontario Drinking Water Quality Standards, O.Reg. 169/03, under the Safe Drinking Water Act, 2002).
Potential water (and ice) contaminants may be microbiological, chemical or physical. While all may cause adverse health effects, microbial contamination is generally of greatest concern.
Minerals (calcium and magnesium salts) found in water can negatively affect the performance of cleaners and sanitizers. These salts not only tie up active ingredients, requiring higher application rates, but also may precipitate out as mineral scale. This scale is an ideal place for microorganisms to attach as a biofilm in which they are protected from cleaners and sanitizers. In addition, scale buildup can reduce heat-transfer efficiency and reduce the internal diameter of pipes.
|Water Hardness Rating||Calcium Carbonate Content (ppm)||Grains per Gallon|
|Very hard||over 180||over 10.5|
Where hard water must be used for cleaning, the addition of chelating or sequestrating agents (a water softener) is necessary. Surfactants are sometimes mixed with water to reduce surface tension (making water wetter) and to help overcome water hardness.
Water may contain enteric pathogens (bacteria, viruses and parasites), which can be transmitted to humans. While bacteria do not multiply in water, many can multiply in food. Viruses and parasites do not reproduce in food.
Chemicals, such as pesticides, synthetic organics, nitrates, arsenic, lead, mercury and asbestos are sometimes found in water. In large enough quantities all are potentially toxic. Chemical contamination can result from chemical spills, incorrect use of pesticides, improper water treatment, or cross-contamination with sewage or industrial waste.
The CFIA recommends that municipal water used in food processing should be tested twice a year by the processor. Water from other sources should be tested once each month. Many food processors have found it advantageous to install water treatment devices (e.g. chlorinator, UV light, ozonation device, etc.) in order to ensure water is potable.
Because use of contaminated water can cause severe consequences, many food processors test much more frequently; some as often as every day. Private laboratories perform coliform and E. coli water analysis for a fee in the $25 to $30 range. In addition to bacteria, food processors may also wish to test water for metals, minerals and pesticides.
Sanitation may be achieved using either heat (thermal treatment) or chemicals.
Depending upon the application, sanitation may be achieved by immersing parts or utensils in 77°C to 85°C water for 45 seconds to 5 minutes.
A 45-second immersion in 77°C water is equivalent to immersion in:
Larger equipment may be sprayed with the same temperature water for the same period of time. However, it is important to remember that, when cooler equipment is immersed in hot water, or hot water is sprayed on cooler equipment, the water temperature will decrease rapidly, so killing power is lost. Hot water sanitizing is effective only when appropriate temperatures can be maintained for the appropriate period of time.
Hot water sanitation is easy to apply, readily available, effective for a broad range of microorganisms, non-corrosive, and penetrates cracks and crevices. However, it is relatively slow, can contribute to high energy costs, may contribute to the formation of biofilms, may shorten the life of certain equipment of parts (e.g., seals and gaskets) and can be a safety hazard to employees. Fungal spores will survive this treatment. Because hot water spraying is very energy inefficient and can raise the temperature of the surrounding area, this practice is generally not recommended.
There is no perfect chemical sanitizer. Effectiveness depends on:
All sanitizers used in food production facilities in Ontario should be acceptable to the CFIA. The CFIA sanitizer list may be found at the CFIA's Reference Listing of Accepted Construction Materials, Packaging Materials and Non-Food Chemical Products. It may be found at http://active.inspection.gc.ca/scripts/fssa/reference/reference.asp?lang=e.
Selection of a cleaner and sanitizer supplier is extremely important. As well as supplying chemicals, the supplier should also be able to provide informed expertise regarding chemical selection and use.
When chlorine is added to water, some of it combines with dissolved chemicals and organic material in the water and is "used up." Only the remaining "free" chlorine (hypochlorous acid) is available to destroy microorganisms present. Free chlorine levels can be easily measured using a commercially available test kit or a chlorine meter. Be sure to measure free chlorine levels, not the total chlorine. Frequent testing will ensure that chlorine concentration is maintained at the level required for sanitation. All measurements should be recorded in a log book.
Non-porous (e.g., metal, hard plastic) food contact surfaces should be sanitized with a 100-200 ppm "free" chlorine solution for a minimum of 45 seconds. A chlorine solution of 600 ppm is recommended for porous surfaces (e.g., wood, soft plastic) but, at this concentration, food contact surfaces must be rinsed afterward. Higher concentrations (e.g., 1,000-2,000 ppm) may be used on walls and floors.
It is wise to wear protective clothing and eye covering when using chlorine solutions. Also, make sure that the area is well ventilated.
Contact time of two minutes is considered sufficient to reduce pathogen populations to an acceptable level when the surface is free of organic matter. After sanitizing, allow the surface to air dry.
The following formula may be used to calculate the correct amount of chlorine to add to potable water to achieve a desired concentration.
[(desired ppm of chlorine) × (total water volume)] ÷ [ (% hypochlorite in sanitizer) × (10,000) = litres concentrated chlorine to add
[(200 ppm chlorine) × (250 litres)] ÷ [(5.25%) × (10,000)] = 0.95 litres required
The same formula may be used for granular bleach formulations (e.g., 65% calcium hypochlorite).
Temperature also affects chlorine effectiveness. Temperatures should be 24°C (72°F) or a little higher (e.g., lukewarm/tepid water). Chlorine is ineffective above temperatures of 46°C. A word of caution: dangerous chlorine gas is released if chlorine is used in hot water.
Water pH level influences the chlorine concentration required for effective sanitation. The optimum pH is 6.5 to 7.0, but chlorine remains effective within a pH of 6.0 to 7.5. If the pH falls below 4.0, dangerous chlorine gas (mustard gas) is produced. Solution pH should be checked after chlorine is added. (pH may be adjusted with commercially available buffers).
Chlorine is relatively unstable so chlorine solutions gradually lose strength even in covered containers. Fresh solutions must be prepared frequently. Maximum storage life is 24 hours. Always label containers containing chemical solutions.
Chlorine is incompatible with most other chemicals. Do not mix chlorine with detergent cleaners. When mixing chlorine solutions, always add concentrated chlorine to water; never add water to chlorine to avoid possible explosions when mixing chlorine solutions.
Iodophors (a mixture of iodine and surfactant) have broad-spectrum activity and are effective against a wide range of bacteria, viruses, yeasts, moulds, fungi and protozoans. Although less affected by organic matter and water hardness than chlorine, iodophors have a limited effective temperature range (24°C-34°C). They are least effective at low temperatures and vaporize at 49°C. They are most effective at low pH (2.5-3.5) levels. Iodophors have 2.5 times the oxidizing power of chlorine, so a lower concentration is required (e.g., 25 ppm). Iodophors can stain and discolour equipment, especially plastics. They are widely used in the meat industry.
A diverse class of compounds, "quats" are the only sanitizer group with true residual activity. For this reason, they are often used on floors, walls, drains, and equipment that will remain idle for longer than 24 hours. Because quats contain surfactants, they can be "foamed" onto vertical surfaces. A concentration of 200 ppm at 24°C to 44°C with a contact time of 45 seconds is required for sanitation. Because quats adhere to surfaces, food contact surfaces must be rinsed before use.
Quats are non-corrosive, odourless and non-staining. They are effective on porous surfaces and effective over a wide pH range. Their effectiveness diminishes in hard water. Organic matter moderately affects their efficiency. Quats are effective at killing yeast, mould, E. coli and Salmonella. They are not compatible with common detergent compounds or chlorine sanitizers.
Compared to chlorine, quats are relatively expensive.
Do not use phenols in food processing plants. Phenol odours can penetrate food, causing objectionable flavours and odours in the food. Their use should be limited to washrooms.
Peroxyacetic acid is effective against a broad spectrum of coliforms, bacteria, yeast and moulds. It is effective at temperatures from 5°C to 40°C and at a pH up to 8.0. It decomposes to acetic acid (vinegar), water, oxygen and carbon dioxide.
PAA is most commonly used in fresh-cut, further processed, and post-harvest fruit and vegetable flume and wash water systems, especially in applications where high organic matter would significantly decrease the effectiveness of chlorine. Different formulations are designed to be used directly on whole and processed fruit and vegetable surfaces, on food and non-food contact surfaces, and in clean-in-place (CIP) systems. Rinsing is generally not required.
Peroxyacetic acid can be very expensive.
Selection of a cleaner and sanitizer supplier is extremely important. As well as supplying chemicals, the supplier should also be able to provide informed expertise regarding chemical selection and use. Periodically, it is wise to review the cleaning and sanitation program to determine if it is effective. This review may include post-sanitation tests for microbes (environmental swabs) on selected surfaces in the facility.
Because sanitizing requires direct contact between the sanitizer and the microorganisms to be killed, surfaces must be clean before a sanitizing solution is used. The presence of organic matter significantly reduces the killing power of sanitizing solutions.
The following steps are required for cleaning and sanitizing:
It is important to understand that sanitation is a sequence of steps with each step building upon the successful completion of the previous step. To prevent potential cross-contamination, each step must be fully complete before the next step occurs. For example, if one sanitation worker is performing a pre-rinse procedure on a machine beside another machine where another worker is doing a final rinse, there is risk that an overspray from the dirty machine may contaminate the clean, sanitary surface of the cleaned machine.
The warmer the temperature, the faster microbes grow and reproduce, and the more frequent the requirement for cleaning and sanitation. As a rule of thumb, for every 6°C (10°F) rise in food ingredient or food product temperature, the rate of microbial growth increases by 50 per cent. For example, at 16°C (60°F), the rate of microbial growth in food debris in a processing plant is 50 per cent greater than if the temperature is 10°C (50°F). The vast majority of human pathogens grow best at temperatures of 25°C to 40°C. (The human body is 37°C.) It should be noted that E. coli grow at temperatures as low as 10°C; Salmonella at temperatures as low as 7°C and the spoilage bacteria Pseudomonas as low as 4°C. A microbiological monitoring program can be used to determine the period of time necessary between cleanups.
Pay special attention to areas where trapped food and water create ideal growing conditions for microorganisms. These include cracks in floors, pools of standing water, clogged floor drains, tape used for temporary repairs, exposed insulation, open-design conveyor belts, the underside of conveyor belts, hollow rollers, fixed sleeved assemblies, concave surfaces and crannies, and crevices in poorly designed manufacturing equipment. Each of these areas can provide an environment in which bacteria (including pathogens, if they are present) can survive and grow.
Drains are an especially high-risk area because they provide an ideal environment for the growth of the pathogen Listeria monocytogenes. To discourage Listeria growth, clean drain covers and the inside of drains on a regular schedule. Sanitation personnel who handle drain components should be prohibited from cleaning food contact surfaces or equipment until protective clothing has been replaced, footwear has been cleaned and sanitized, hands have been washed and gloves replaced.
As with personnel, sanitation tools should be limited to specific functions. To ensure that this happens, colour-coded tools should be used. For example, one colour should be dedicated to food contact areas, another to non-food contact areas, and a third for cleaning drains and other similar areas.
Aerosols created by high-pressure/low-volume water cleaning can be a source of cross-contamination by carrying microorganisms from non-food contact surfaces to food contact surfaces. Whenever possible, do not use high-pressure air or water to clean food processing and food storage areas. Where pressure sprays cannot be avoided, take care to create as few aerosols as possible. Pressure sprays should never be used as a final rinse because any resulting cross-contamination will negate previous cleaning and sanitation.
Certain items require special cleaning and sanitation methods. For example, dirty control buttons can transfer microorganisms to hands, which, in turn, contaminate food, ingredients, food contact surfaces or packaging. Because control buttons are covered for worker safety during cleaning, a safe, effective cleaning and sanitation method must be developed for them. Another example is that only one side of screens may be readily accessible for cleaning and sanitation. This may create a potential area of cross-contamination. In this case, develop procedures to remove screens or to partially dismantle equipment to enable complete cleaning and sanitation. Water and/or chemicals may penetrate sealed surfaces such as bearings if they are cleaned and sanitized improperly. In addition to causing premature wear, penetration may create an entrance for microbes and provide an inaccessible niche for microbial growth.
Applying sanitizer at too low a level or for an insufficient period of time can lead to higher bacterial levels and/or to development of resistant strains of microbes. When this occurs, the area must be "shocked" back to a safe bacterial level by switching to high concentrations of another sanitizer for several days.
A good pest control program is necessary for a cleaning and sanitation program to be effective. Pests, including birds, mice, rats and insects (e.g., flies, cockroaches), can contaminate a food processing facility with urine and droppings, can damage packaging supplies with their gnawing, and can spread a variety of pathogens as they move around the building, equipment and food contact surfaces. Even areas that have been cleaned and sanitized can be recontaminated.
Automated cleaning systems will improve cleaning by consistently controlling cleaner/sanitizer concentration, solution pH and temperature, cleaning/sanitizer contact time and the mechanical force used during cleaning. Automated systems also reduce labour hours and reduce cleaning hours. However, manual cleaning requires less capital outlay, and no re-engineering or retrofitting of the facility is necessary. The benefits of automated cleaning systems are generally greatest in larger operations with large and/or complex equipment.
When meters are used to automatically mix cleaners and sanitizers, the concentration should be checked every day with a commercially available test kit to ensure that it is correct.
Every food processing facility should have written Sanitation Standard Operating Procedures (SSOPs) for completing sanitation activities. SSOPs provide specific instructions as to how to complete each sanitation activity. Communication of those instructions to sanitation employees is crucial to the success of a cleaning and sanitation program. A brief description of a sanitation training program follows in the next section.SSOPs should:
To ensure that no tasks are missed, a master sanitation schedule outlines the frequency with which each sanitation task is to be performed (e.g., daily, weekly, monthly, end of season). To verify that sanitation activities have been carried out as described, monitor activities and record results. If monitoring discovers deficiencies between the written SSOP and its implementation, take a predetermined corrective action and record the results. If necessary, alter the procedure or retrain staff to ensure that the deviation does not occur again. After sanitation activities and before resuming food processing activities, do a pre-operational inspection to ensure that all cleaning and sanitation requirements have been met. The evaluation may be organoleptic (sight and smell) or may include environmental swabbing for microbiological laboratory testing.
Let us suppose that a food processing plant has a processing line that includes an Imaginary Vegetable Chopper. The example on the next page outlines the elements that should be included in a typical SSOP for that Imaginary Chopper. It is followed by an example of a cleaning record. Keep in mind that records are an integral part of every SSOP.
Prepared: February 9, 2006
Approved by: ________________________________________
NA = not applicable
Date: Feb. 9, 2006
|Task||Before Shift||Mid A.M.||Lunch Break||Mid P.M.||After Shift||Comments||Corrective Action||Initials|
|sanitize vegetable chopper (45 ml bleach in 12 litres water)||Yes||NA||NA||NA||NA||JB|
|remove inedible debris rinse chopper with water||NA||Yes||Yes||Yes||Yes||container overflowing in mid-afternoon||Bill emptied it into outside bin||JB|
|dismantle chopper rinse parts place in soak tank||NA||NA||NA||NA||Yes||JB|
|pour 200 l 75oC water into soak tank add 1 litre ABC start pump||NA||NA||NA||NA||Yes||thermometer indicated water was only 60°C||recalibrated thermometer||JB|
|rinse chopper again remove inedible debris||NA||NA||NA||NA||No||didn't need further rinsing||JB|
|foam chopper from bottom up with XYZ foam cleaner||NA||NA||NA||NA||Yes||JB|
|drain soak tank rinse parts inspect for cleanliness||NA||NA||NA||NA||Yes||JB|
|rinse foam from chopper after 3 5 minutes visually inspect||NA||NA||NA||NA||Yes||conveyor belt not very clean||foamed conveyor belt again and rerinsed||JB|
|reassemble chopper supervisor
inspection, environmental swabs
|NA||NA||NA||NA||Yes||looks clean no swabs taken today||RF|
|sanitize chopper (45 ml bleach in 12 litres water)||NA||NA||NA||NA||Yes||JB|
Task - very little XYZ concentrate left
Job-specific training is the process by which cleaning and sanitation crew members are:
Begin training by emphasizing the relationship between proper cleaning and sanitation and the hazards that can cause foodborne illness. This may include an overview of biological, chemical and physical hazards associated with the food being packed/processed as well as the various methods and chemicals used for effective cleaning and sanitation. Employees must be able to easily connect the relevance of what is being presented to the jobs they are being asked to do.
Each piece of equipment and/or sanitation task should have a comprehensive, but simply stated, list of procedures that must be followed for cleaning, sanitation, and inspection of walls, equipment, food contact surfaces, utensils and floors (a Sanitation Standard Operating Procedure or SSOP). Training should review these procedures as they relate to the employees being trained. Throughout the training, employees should understand that their contribution to the cleaning and sanitation program is critical to the safety of the food product.
Training should also include proper mixing, use, handling, and storage of cleaning and sanitation chemicals; use of personal protective equipment (PPE); and where to find and how to read Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS).
Explain how to complete the required documentation and its importance to food safety.
Each employee must have easy access to all written SSOPs that are applicable to his or her roles and responsibilities.
Training must not be restricted to new employees. Established employees, including managers and supervisors, should also receive ongoing training at least annually or when there are changes to the cleaning and sanitation procedures. It is important that backup personnel also receive the same training for tasks they might be required to perform on a fill-in basis.
For training to be credible to employees, it should be delivered by qualified individuals who have practical experience in cleaning and sanitation. Trainers should also be able to relate their knowledge/experience to the specific learning needs of individual trainees.
Adults learn best when the learning approach is participatory, problem-centred and relevant to their immediate circumstance. Skills and information that are immediately applicable to the job are most often remembered. Encourage active participation in training sessions by drawing on the trainee's experience. Listen and respond respectfully to trainee questions and concerns.
Use a variety of teaching strategies to accommodate different learning preferences. For example:
Restrict training sessions to one or two concepts per session. Several shorter sessions are much more effective than one long session where employees cannot possibly absorb all the information presented. Reinforce points. Give positive feedback whenever possible. At the next session, review topics from the most recent session, and discuss how what was learned has been put into practice and what barriers (if any) have been encountered.
Each presentation should be in a language understood by the employee.
Symbols and pictures can help overcome language barriers.
The physical environment in which instruction takes place can also affect learning positively or negatively. Take into consideration the room temperature, the arrangement of the room, the time of day, the brightness of the room, the noise level and potential distractions.
In the workplace, reinforce what has been taught with posters, signs and other visual aids placed in strategic, high-traffic locations. Managers and supervisors should also encourage trainees to put into practice what they have learned, to offer encouragement for what is done correctly and to patiently correct what has been done incorrectly.
|Written Sanitation Standard Operating Procedures (SSOPs) identify areas, equipment and utensils to be cleaned the frequency of cleaning and sanitation the procedures, and chemicals to be used those responsible the procedure to verify effectiveness corrective actions to be taken and the records required. All have been implemented.||
|There is a master cleaning and sanitation schedule identifying each piece of equipment, each utensil and each area to be cleaned and sanitized, and the cleaning and sanitizing schedule for each.||
|Cleaning and sanitizing activities for each piece of equipment, utensil and area are documented and kept on file.||
Cleaning and Sanitation Procedures
| No cleaning practices are performed
during operations that could
potentially cause product contamination. For example, food and packaging are protected from contamination during cleanups. Water and air pressure are used in a way that does not create water droplets or aerosols that could potentially contaminate food, packaging or food contact surfaces.
|Cleanliness is evident throughout
the facility in both processing and
non-processing areas. Food-contact surfaces are clean. There are no
buildups or accumulations of food products or soil. Spills are cleaned up promptly. Utensils used during processing are cleaned and sanitized
regularly. Floors are free of standing water. Hoses are neatly stored off
the floor. Good housekeeping practices are observed.
|A designated individual(s) other than the individual(s)
the cleaning/sanitizing operations routinely performs a sanitation
assessment before operations begin or resume.
Cleaning and Sanitation Procedures
| Cleaning and sanitizing chemicals
are acceptable to the CFIA (found
on the CFIA's Reference Listing of Accepted Construction Materials,
Packaging Materials and Non-Food Chemical Products at http://active.inspection.gc.ca/scripts/fssa/reference/reference.asp?lang=e
|Equipment used for cleaning and sanitizining
is constructed of foodgrade materials acceptable to the CFIA
(found on the CFIA's
Reference Listing of Accepted Construction Materials, Packaging
Materials and Non-Food Chemical Non-Food Chemical Products at
|Cleaning/sanitizing containers, brushes, applicators,
etc. are labelled or
colour coded to prevent inadvertent use in unintended areas where
there is potential for cross-contamination. Chemicals are stored in a
separate, locked area away from food processing or food storage
|Cleaning and Sanitation Training||
|10||There are documented training programs in place for cleaning and sanitation personnel.|
aerosols- suspended droplets of liquid, often containing microorganisms; often caused by splashing water against contaminated surfaces in a food processing environment
alkaline- a substance with a relatively low concentration of hydrogen ions creating a pH value greater than 7.0
bacteria- microscopic, single-celled organisms found in soil, air, water, and the intestinal tract and mucous membranes of animals and humans; bacteria cells multiply by dividing in two (called binary fission)
biofilm- an invisible layer of organic secretions, attached to surfaces that appear to be clean and sanitary, that harbour living bacteria cells; can be difficult to remove during cleaning sanitation procedures
Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CIFA)- the federal agency responsible for the enforcement of the policies and standards under the Agriculture and Agri-Food Administrative Monetary Penalties Act, Canada Agricultural Products Act, Canadian Food Inspection Agency Act, Feeds Act, Fertilizers Act, Fish Inspection Act, Health of Animals Act, Meat Inspection Act, Plant Breeders' Rights Act, Plant Protection Act, Seeds Act, and the Consumer Packaging and Labelling Act and the enforcement of the Food and Drugs Act as they relate to food; CIFA focuses on federally registered establishments that engage in interprovincial and export trade.
chelating agent- an organic compound that keeps metals in water from combining; also known as sequestering agents, chelating agents prevent metal buildup that causes staining
chemical agent- a compound that increases the effectiveness of water in removing soil and other foreign materials from surfaces
cleaning- the process of removing surface dirt, debris and associated bacteria from a surface by washing with water and detergent
clean-in-place (CIP)- a continuous system whereby cleaning or sanitizing agents are recirculated through intact machinery
clean-out-of-place (COP)- a cleaning and sanitizing system used for equipment that can be disassembled and placed in a soak or circulating tank
cross-contamination- the transfer of harmful microorganisms from one person, object, food or place to another through a non-food surface such as equipment, utensils or human hands
enteric pathogens- illness- or disease-causing microorganisms found in the intestinal tract of humans
food- spoilage microorganisms-fungi and bacteria commonly found on fresh produce that impair its flavour, aroma and appearance; they include Pseudomonas spp., lactic acid bacteria such as Leuconostoc mesenteroides and Lactobacillus spp., Erwinia herbicola, Flavobacterium, Xanthomonas, Enterobacter agglomerans, yeasts and moulds. The type and magnitude of microbial growth can vary greatly for different produce items and storage conditions.
fungi- parasitic organisms that lack chlorophyll, they grow on living or dead organisms; yeast and moulds are types of fungi along with rusts, mildews, smuts and mushrooms
inorganic- derived from mineral sources; examples include sand, salt, iron, calcium salts
Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS)- fact sheets designed to reflect the hazards of working with and/or storing a particular chemical; they provide workers with information such as physical data, toxicity, health effects, first aid, reactivity, storage, disposal, protective equipment and spill/leak procedures.
microbe- another word for a microorganism
microorganisms- living entities that are too small to be visible to the naked eye; they include bacteria, viruses, protozoa, and fungi such as yeasts and moulds
microbiological- an adjective used to express an attribute relating to microorganisms, e.g., the microbiological quality of water
moulds- multicellular organisms that form fuzzy or powdery patches (mycelium) on organic matter such as fruits and vegetables; along with yeast, they are fungi
organic- carbon-containing compounds obtained from plant or animal sources
parasite- an organism that obtains nourishment from a living plant or an animal in order to grow and reproduce, usually to the detriment of the host
pathogen- a microorganism that is capable of causing illness or disease when it enters the human body
pathogenic microorganisms- illness- or disease-causing bacteria, protozoa, viruses or fungi
personal protective equipment (PPE)- equipment or clothing worn to prevent injury or illness from occurring while handling hazardous materials
pH- the acidity or alkalinity of a liquid measured by the concentration of free hydrogen ions and expressed on a logarithmic scale. If the pH is below 7.0, the solution is acidic (the lower the number, the greater the degree of acidity); if it is above 7.0, the solution is alkaline (the higher the number, the greater the level of alkalinity). A pH of 7.0 is neutral (neither acid nor alkaline).
physical agent- includes heat, cold, noise, radiation, electricity, etc. that can occur naturally or can be produced, e.g., heat is a physical agent that be the result of the weather or be created to kill microorganisms
Sanitation Standard Operating Procedure (SSOP)- written step-by-step procedures that describe in detail how cleaning and sanitation procedures should be done to comply with Good Manufacturing Practices requirements related to cleaning and sanitation
sanitizing- use of heat or chemicals to reduce the number of microorganisms on a clean surface to safe levels
Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs)- written step-by-step procedures that describe in detail how a procedure should be done to comply with Good Manufacturing Practices requirements, except those related to cleaning and sanitation
surfactant- an agent that reduces the surface tension of a liquid (usually water) to permit the penetration of cleaning compounds by increasing the emulsifying, foaming, dispersing, spreading and wetting properties of a product; reduces the surface tension between two liquids
turbidity- cloudiness in water caused by suspension of clay, silt, other finely divided organic and inorganic matter, and microscopic organisms
virus- an ultramicroscopic piece of nucleic acid (DNA or RNA) wrapped in a thin coat of protein that can be seen only with an electron microscope; very infectious and often pathogenic, a virus reproduces by inserting itself into a living host cell and altering the function of that cell
yeast- a unicellular fungus that grows spherical or oval single cells rather than mycelium; can be either beneficial or detrimental in food processing
Risk Management Specialist
Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs
2284 Nursery Road
Risk Management Specialist
Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs
4890 Victoria Avenue S.
Risk Identification Management Coordinator
Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs
1 Stone Road West, 5th Floor NW
|Creation Date:||20 July 2006|
|Last Reviewed:||18 February 2014|