Advantage Good Agricultural
8.2 Pesticide Use
improperly used, products used to control pests in the field can contaminate the
environment or leave potentially harmful residues on the crop.
Agricultural Practice applies to:
All farms that apply pesticides, including
products used in organic production.
What needs to be done
sure pesticides are used properly and, if required, applied by someone who holds
a valid Grower Pesticide Safety Course certificate or licence.
How to do
Check the label
Use only pesticide products registered for use
Use only on crops specified and for weeds or pests indicated
on the label.
Read and follow all label directions. Even if the product
has been on the market for years, application rates and usage information may
Apply pesticides appropriately
Make sure applications are
done by a certified grower, a licensed custom applicator or a trained assistant
supervised by a certified grower.
Apply pesticides under the right environmental
conditions to reduce the possibility of spray drift, run-off or leaching that
may contaminate other crops. Check the product label for details.
and calibrate the application equipment to deliver the correct rate.
calculations to make sure the application rate is correct according to the rate
given on the label.
Clean and rinse equipment using the manufacturer's recommended
procedures between applications to prevent carry over and contamination.
the pre-harvest interval (PHI) and the pre-grazing interval (PGI) requirements
on the label. This ensures that no produce is harvested and that no animals graze
on a treated field until the legal number of days after the application has passed.
Failure to wait may result in residues exceeding the maximum residue limit in
the crop or contamination of the milk and/or meat.
In the event that harvesting
or grazing occurred before the PHI or PGI, segregate the product.
If there are concerns about residues, hold or separate the product
and discuss options with a provincial and/or federal agricultural specialist.
Terms used in this Good Agricultural Practice
Pest Management (IPM): The process of planning and taking steps that
will prevent or control pests.
Pest Control Product Number (PCP#):
A Pest Control Product Act registration number that shows that the product has
been registered by Health Canada's Pest Management Regulatory Agency (PMRA). All
pesticides registered under the federal Pest Control Product Act must be classified
by Ontario's Pesticide Advisory Committee before they can be offered for sale
or used in Ontario.
Pre-Grazing Interval (PGI): The
amount of time that must pass between the application of pesticides to a crop
and the grazing of animals on that crop.
(PHI): The amount of time that must pass between the application of pesticides
to a crop and the harvesting of that crop.
Records to keep
Pesticide Use Record. We have provided a record
template for your use in the Training and Support Tools section. A
version is also available. Or keep your own record that includes:
- Application date
- Chemical applied (with PCP#)
- Rate applied
- Weather conditions (e.g. temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and
- Crop and stage of growth
- Target pest(s)
identification, location and size
- Earliest possible harvest/grazing date
- Initials (and certification number if contracted out)
Pesticide Education Program: 1-800-652-8573
Agricultural Information Contact
Poison Control Centre: 1-800-268-9017
Did you know?
IPM programs can help you:
- Recognize conditions that could lead to pest problems
pest problems from starting
- Produce long-term solutions to pest
If you need an audit:
Be prepared for the
auditor to review:
- Pesticide Use Records
- A valid Grower's
Pesticide Safety Course certificate and/or licence
regulations that apply:
All pesticides used on-farm should be authorized
for agricultural production, approved under various federal and provincial laws,
not prohibited under these laws or regulations, and sold in accordance with these
laws. The laws include the Pest Control Products Act (Canada), R.S. c. P-9
and requirements of the Pesticides Act, R.S.O. 1990, c. P. 11 and R.R.O. 1990,
Pesticides must not cause contamination of foods that are
listed in the Food and Drugs Act (Canada), R.S. 1985, c. F-27, Food and Drug
Regulations, Division 15. Under the Food Safety and Quality Act, 2001,
Meat Regulations, food animals are contaminated by definition if they contain
or have been treated or exposed to a substance not permitted by, or in an amount
in excess of limits prescribed under the Canadian Environmental Protection
Act, 1999 (Canada), the Food and Drugs Act (Canada) or the Pest Control
Products Act (Canada).
The pesticide product label is a legal document
that specifies restrictions on its use, such as withdrawal periods, re-entry requirements,
days to harvest, protective equipment, and the effect of environmental conditions
that must be observed. The Pest Control Products Regulations (Canada), C.R.C.,
c. 1253, s. 45 (1) specifies that no person shall use a control product in
a manner that is inconsistent with the directions or limitations respecting its
use shown on the label, while (2) specifies that no person shall use a pest control
product imported for the importer's own use in a manner that is inconsistent with
the conditions set forth on the importer's declaration respecting the pest control
product. Similarly, the Pesticides Act, R.S.O. 1990, c. P.11, Regulation 914,
R.R.O. 1990, s. 22 (2) specifies that no person shall use a pesticide except
in accordance with the label for that pesticide or this Regulation.
Pest Control Products Act (Canada), R.S., c. P-9, s. 4 prohibits the manufacture,
storage, display, distribution or use of pest control products under unsafe conditions
or contrary to the regulations. Certain pesticides may be prohibited under any
circumstances. For example, the Pesticides Act, R.S.O. 1990, Reg. 914, s. 62
prohibits use, storage or disposal of a pesticide that contains aldrin, chlordane,
chlordecone, dichlorodiphenyltri-chloroethane (DDT), dieldrin or endrin. S.
64 to 79 of Regulation 914 set out requirements for notification
and posting when pesticides are used.
Other legislation to be aware
When a farmer suffers a loss as a result of pesticide residue in or on
an agricultural product as determined by an inspection, the farmer may receive
compensation under the Pesticide Residue Compensation Act, R.S. 1985, c. P-10.
He or she may also be compensated if the product used was one registered under
the Pest Control Products Act or deemed to be, if it was used in accordance with
recommendations, and if and the presence of the pesticide residue is not due to
any fault of the farmer or the farmer's employees or the farm's previous owner.
To the extent that pest control products are toxic or hazardous, the Occupational
Health and Safety Act, 1990, c. O. 1, s. 26 [as of June 30, 2006 - see O. Reg.
414/05 Farming Operations] will require training of staff in their safe use, WHMIS
Did you know?
More than 27,000 Ontario
farmers are trained in pesticide application and safety through the Ontario Pesticide
to 8.3 Nutrient Use