Cereals: Additional Management Opportunities
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| Cereals | Dry
Edible Beans |
Growers familiar with European cereal production are
aware of the yield increases possible with the use of fungicides,
growth regulators and increased fertility. Under Ontario conditions,
it is more challenging to realize profits from incorporating these
additional inputs within the production system. Experienced growers
with high management capabilities in cereal production have developed
the ability to use and profit from these strategies. Growers must
be able to determine the best timing for application, as well as
whether it is warranted.
Foliar disease control is one of these management
strategies. Further information on disease identification and control
can be found in Chapter
14, Diseases of Field Crops, and in OMAFRA
Publication 812, Field Crop Protection Guide. Thresholds for
disease control vary, depending on the disease present, the stage
of growth and condition of the crop. In general, it is important
to scout the top two leaves of the cereal crop, at any stage of
growth. If disease is moving onto one or both of these leaves, determine
if the control threshold control has been reached and if control
Growth regulators are another management option to
consider. Some cereal varieties have excellent yield potential but
lodge prior to harvest, reducing yield and quality. Growth regulators,
when used at the proper application time and rate, can shorten and
strengthen the straw and maintain standability until harvest. Varieties
with excellent lodging resistance see www.gocereals.ca
do not require this additional input.
Application of fusarium control fungicides requires
specialized nozzles or nozzle combinations to achieve optimum results.
Maximizing wheat head coverage requires both proper timing and the
best nozzle configurations.
The key to applying fungicides to prevent fusarium head blight (FHB) is to spray all sides of all wheat heads with product. Heads that are missed or only partially sprayed are not protected adequately. Research carried out at the University of Guelph's Ridgetown Campus since 2001 has evaluated spray nozzles and nozzle combinations to maximize spray coverage on all sides of the wheat heads.
Figure 4-5. Recommended Nozzle Orientation of a Forward-and-Back Double Nozzle Assembly. Nozzles with a shallow attack angle, such as forward-and-back double nozzles and alternating turbo floodjets, have significantly better spray coverage of wheat heads than nozzles spraying straight down.
Results showed that the closer the nozzles sprayed to horizontal, in a forward and back manner, the better the spray coverage.
Nozzles that spray close to vertical had significantly less spray coverage on the heads. Figure 4-5, Recommended Nozzle Orientation of a Forward-and-Back Double Nozzle Assembly, shows a boom-end view of the recommended nozzle orientation of a forward-and-back double nozzle assembly. Turbo FloodJet nozzles alternating forward and back every 20 in. along the boom also have this 15°-below-horizontal spray inclination. These two nozzle set-ups provide the best spray coverage for FHB control.
Follow label directions. More water should improve spray coverage, especially in windier conditions. For ground application keep water volumes in the 18-20 gallons/acre (GPA) range. Do not exceed 20 GPA application rates.
Spray coverage levels are very near equal from 10-20 km/h. In research trials, travel speed did not change the ranking or coverage level of the different nozzles. Spraying speed is not a critical factor in spray coverage of wheat heads.
Forward-and-back double nozzle assemblies and alternating Turbo FloodJets should be operated at 25-30 cm (10-12 in.) above the wheat canopy. Operate other nozzles a sufficient height above the canopy - about 50 cm (20 in.) - to allow full pattern development. Operating nozzles higher than this minimum nozzle-to-target distance will result in a significant reduction in spray coverage. Operating the boom at double the minimum nozzle-to-target distance from the wheat heads could reduce head coverage by as much as 50%.
Day 0 occurs when 75% of the heads on the main stems are fully emerged. Target spray applications for Day 1 to Day 4, with optimum timing of Day 2.
Current FHB fungicides (Folicur and Proline) are both rainfast in 1 hour. Spray once wheat heads are fairly dry. Moisture droplets on the heads may cause spray to run off, thereby reducing coverage levels.
It is essential to clean out sprayers totally, including boom end caps. Wheat at heading is incredibly sensitive to any tank contamination, with yield loss approaching 100% in severe cases. If sprayer cleanout is not adequate, growers would be better not to spray for FHB.
Weather INnovations Inc (WIN) offers the DONcast forecast
modelling system. This free service has been made possible by sponsorship
from the Ontario Wheat Producers' Marketing Board and Bayer CropScience.
Visit the WIN website
and follow the prompts.
For more information:
Toll Free: 1-877-424-1300