Soybeans: Variety Selection
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811: Agronomy Guide > Soybeans
> Variety Selection
There are over 200 soybean varieties, and their turnover in the marketplace is relatively quick. Aside from maturity and yield, base variety selection on resistance or tolerance to disease, aphids, standability and soybean cyst nematode resistance.
Maturity and CHUs
Soybean development is affected by heat unit accumulation, day-length
and hours of sunshine. Disease, moisture stress and other stresses
can lengthen or shorten the actual days to maturity, depending on
when the stress occurs.
The hilum is the point at which the soybean seed attaches to the pod. Varieties differ in hilum colour and can be yellow (Y), imperfect yellow (IY), grey (GR), buff (BF), brown (BR), black (BL) or imperfect black (IBL). Yellow hilum soybeans are generally the preferred type for the export market. Hilum discolouration may occur on the imperfect yellow (IY) varieties. Affected beans may not be acceptable for export markets.
Choosing Superior Varieties
In addition to maturity rating, other important factors for choosing varieties are:
In selecting superior varieties, three main sources of information exist:
The Ontario Oil and Protein Seed Crop Committee conduct performance
trials each year at various locations across the province. Results
are published each fall in the Ontario Soybean Variety Trials brochure.
This brochure is available on the Internet at www.gosoy.ca.
These trials are valuable for comparing the yield potential of varieties
as well as providing ratings for maturity, plant height and lodging.
In Southwestern Ontario, at locations with clay soil types, varieties
are evaluated for resistance to phytophthora root rot. Varieties
with resistance to phytophthora root rot are recommended on heavier
soils. In fields with soybean cyst nematodes (SCN), include varieties
with SCN resistance regularly in the rotation (see Soybean
Identity-Preserved (IP) Varieties
Varieties carrying special traits, such as resistance to certain
herbicides, are available in Ontario. These may have value for growers
trying to address specific weed problems. They can also be useful
in certain tillage systems. These varieties may not be accepted
in all soybean markets.
For more information:
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