Publication 360, Guide to Fruit Production: Chapter 11 - Bee Poisoning


Cover of Publication 360, Fruit Production Recommendations

Excerpt from Publication 360, Guide to Fruit Recommendations, 2014-15

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Table of Contents

  1. Bee Poisoning (PDF)
  2. Other information on pesticides
  3. Chapter 11 - Information on Pesticides (PDF)
  4. Related Links

Bee Poisoning

Honeybees, native bee species and other pollinating insects are important pollinators for many Ontario crops. Insecticides, some of which may negatively affect bees, require careful management to achieve both pollination and insect control. Growers and licensed commercial applicators can protect bees by following these suggestions:

  • Do not apply insecticides while fruit trees are in bloom. The Bees Act makes it an offence to do so in Ontario. Do not spray any flowering crop on which bees are foraging.
  • Time insecticide applications to minimize bee poisoning. Daytime treatments, when bees are foraging, are most hazardous. Insecticide applications in the evening are the safest. Spraying after 8 pm allows the spray to dry before the bees are exposed to it the next day. This is the most successful way to avoid bee damage. Early morning is the next best time, but spraying should be completed before 7 am. While honeybees and most other pollinating insects do not usually forage at temperatures below 13°C, bumblebees do. If you plan to spray in the morning, contact beekeepers who have bees within 10 km of your crop. The beekeepers will then have the option of taking protective action.
  • Beekeepers should remove honeybee colonies as soon as pollination is complete and before any insecticides are applied postbloom.
  • If colonies cannot be removed before insecticides are applied, beekeepers can place wet burlap or cloth at the entrance of the hive to disrupt the flight of the bees for up to 12 hours and provide more time for spray to dry. An opening of 2.5 cm on each side of the hive entrance is necessary so the bees can get out and ventilate the hive.
  • Bees and other pollinators may be poisoned by visiting flowering weeds (e.g., dandelions) or cover crops (e.g., clover) that have come in contact with an insecticide. Avoid spray drift to blooming plants that are adjacent to or within the target field. Where possible, mow down such crops prior to spraying to help safeguard the bees.
  • To prevent drift toward nearby hives, do not apply insecticides on windy days or when there is evidence of a strong temperature inversion.
  • If there is a risk of honeybee poisoning, try to choose an insecticide that is not highly toxic to bees. When there is a choice, choose a product formulation that is less hazardous to bees. See Table 11-2. Relative Toxicity of Pesticides to Honeybees.
  • Before applying a pesticide, advise local beekeepers so they can move colonies out of the danger area, if this is an option. Contact information for the local beekeepers' association in your area can be found on the Ontario Beekeepers' Association website at www.ontariobee.com/community/local-beekeepers-associations. Other ways to find your local beekeepers are to contact the Provincial Apiarist at 1-888-466-2372, ext. 63595, or see www.ontario.ca/crops and click "Apiculture" and then "Bee Inspectors" for a list of provincial bee inspectors who know the local beekeepers.

For more detailed information on the toxicity of specific pesticides to honeybees, refer to the pesticide label.

Table 11-2. Relative Toxicity of Pesticides to Honeybees (PDF)

Group I: Pesticides highly toxic to bees
Severe losses may be expected if the following materials are used when bees are present at treatment time or within a few days thereafter.

Product
Active Ingredient
Actara 25 WG
thiamethoxam
Admire 240 F
imidacloprid
Agri-Mek 1.9% EC
abamectin
Alias 240 SC
imidacloprid
Ambush 500 EC
permethrin
Closer SC
sulfoxaflor
Clutch 50 WDG
clothianidin
Concept
imidacloprid + deltamethrin
Cygon 480 AG
dimethoate
Decis 5 EC
deltamethrin
Delegate WG
spinetoram
Diazinon 500 E
diazinon
Diazinon 50 WSP
diazinon
Entrust 80 W
spinosad
Entrust SC
spinosad
Exirel
cyantraniliprole
GF-120 Fruit Fly Bait
spinosad
Imidan 70-WP Instapak
phosmet
Lagon 480 E
dimethoate
Lannate Toss-N- Go
methomyl
Lorsban 50 W
chlorpyrifos
Malathion 25 W
malathion
Malathion 85 E
malathion
Matador 120 EC
lambda-cyhalothrin
Movento 240 SC
spirotetramat
MustGrow
oriental mustard seed meal
Nexter
pyridaben
Orthene 75% SP
acephate
Perm-Up
permethrin
Pounce 384 EC
permethrin
Pyganic EC 1.4 II
pyrethrins
Pyramite 480 EC
chlorpyrifos
Ripcord
cypermethrin
Sevin XLR
carbaryl
Silencer 120 EC
lambda-cyhalothrin
Success
spinosad
Up-Cyde 2.5 EC
cypermethrin
Vydate L
oxamyl
Warhawk 480 EC
chlorpyrifos
Warrior
lamda-cyhalothrin

* The active ingredient in MustGrow is considered highly toxic to bees although risk is low due to minimal exposure.

 

Group II: Pesticides moderately toxic to bees
These can be used around bees if dosage, timing, and method of application are correct, but do not apply them directly on bees, in the field or at the colonies.
Product
Active Ingredient
Acramite 50 WS
bifenazate
Assail 70 WP
acetamiprid
Copper 53 W
tri-basic copper sulphate
Envidor 240 SC
sulphate spirodiclofen
Maestro 80 DF
captan
Quintec
quinoxyfen
Rimon 10 EC**
novaluron
Supra Captan 80 WDG
captan
Thionex 50 WSP
endosulfan

* Rimon may be toxic to bee colonies exposed to direct treatment, drift or residues on flowering crops or weeds.

 

Group III: Pesticides relatively non-toxic to bees
Product
Active Ingredient
Acrobat 50 WP
dimethomorph
Actinovate SP
Stretomyces lydicus
Aliette
fosetyl al
Allegro 500 F
fluazinam
Altacor
chlorantraniliprole
Apogee
prohexadione calcium
Apollo SC
clofentezine
Beleaf 50 SG
flonicamid
Bioprotec CAF
Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki
Bloomtime Biological FD
Pantoea agglomerans
Blossom Protect
Aureobasidium pullulans
Bravo 500
chlorothalonil
Buran
garlic powder
Cabrio EG
pyraclostrobin
Calypso 480 SC
thiacloprid
Cantus WDG
boscalid
Confine Extra
mono- and di-potassium salts of phosphorous acid
Confirm 240 F
tebufenozide
Copper Spray
copper oxychloride
Cyd-X
Cydia pomonella granulovirus
Dipel 2X DF
Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki
Dithane DG
mancozeb
Echo 720
chlorothalonil
Elevate 50 WDG
fenhexamid
Equal 65 WP
dodine
Ferbam 76 WDG
ferbam
Flint
trifloxystrobin
Folpan 80 WDG
folpet
Fontelis
penthiopyrad
Foray 48BA
Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki
Funginex DC
triforine
Gavel 75 DF
zoxamide + mancozeb
Granuflo-T
thiram
Indar
fenbuconazole
Inspire
difenoconazole
Inspire Super
difenoconazole + cyprodinil
Intrepid 240 F
methoxyfenozide
Jade
propiconazole
Kanemite 15 SC
acequinocyl
Kasumin 2L
kasugamycin
Kocide 2000
copper hydroxide
Kumulus DF
sulphur
Luna Tranquility
fluopyram + pyrimethanil
Manzate Pro-Stick
mancozeb
MaxCel
6-benzyladenine
Mettle 125 ME
tetraconazole
Microthiol Disperss
sulphur
MilStop
potassium bicarbonate
Mission 418 E
propiconazole
Nova 40 W
myclobutanil
Oberon
spiromesifin
Opal
potassium salts of fatty acids
Penncozeb 75 DF Raincoat
mancozeb
Phostrol
mono- and di-basic sodium, potassium and ammonium phosphites
Polyram DF
metiram
Presidio
fluopicolide
Pristine WG
boscalid & pyraclostrobin
Proline 480 SC
prothioconazole
Quadris
azoxystrobin
Quash
metconazole
Rampart
mono- and di-potassium salts of phosphorous acid
Regalia Maxx
Reynoutria sachalinensis extract
Revus
mandipropamid
Ridomil Gold 480 SL
metalaxyl-m and s-isomer
Ridomil Gold MZ 68 WG
metalaxyl-m and s-isomer + mancozeb
Rovral WDG
iprodione
Scala SC
pyrimethanil
Scholar 230 SC
fludioxonil
Senator 70 WP
thiophanate-methyl
Serenade MAX
Bacillus subtilis
Sirocco
potassium bicarbonate
Sovran
kresoxim-methyl
Switch 62.5 WG
cyprodinil & fludioxonil
Syllit 400 FL
dodine
Tanos 50 DF
famoxadone + cymoxanil
Thiram 75 WP
thiram
Tivano
citric acid + lactic acid
Topas
propiconazole
Vangard 75 WG
cyprodinil
Virosoft CP4
Cydia pomonella granulovirus
Vivando
metrafenone
Zampro
dimethomorph + ametoctradin

Source: PMRA Environmental Assessment Division. For more detailed information on the toxicity of specific pesticides to honeybees refer to the pesticide label.


Related Links


For more information:
Toll Free: 1-877-424-1300
E-mail: ag.info.omafra@ontario.ca
Author: OMAFRA Staff
Creation Date: 29 June 2006
Last Reviewed: 16 June 2014