Management Strategy for Emerald Ash Borer and Bronze Birch Borer - Insect Pests of Landscape Trees in Ontario
Photos and detailed descriptions of EAB can be found at:
Photos and detail descriptions of BBB can be found at:
Landscape trees should be monitored and managed for signs of stress. Proper site selection is one of the most important factors in good tree health. For instance, birch trees are shallow-rooted and thrive on sites with cool, moist soil in the root zone. Quite often, trees are planted in dry, exposed sites with inadequate compacted topsoil and significant competition from turf or other ground covers. Cultural practices such as root zone aeration, irrigation during establishment and drought, structural pruning, removal of competing ground covers, mulching, supplementing soil with organic matter, fertilizing and protection from mechanical injury and compaction should be carried out to help improve the tree's tolerance to pests. Supplemental irrigation is especially important for trees recovering from pest infestations during the dry, summer and autumn months. A slow, gradual irrigation of 15-20 mm every 7-10 days during hot, dry conditions will help keep trees healthy.
Where possible, tree species that are tolerant or resistant to borer pests should be used in the landscape. For example, river birch (Betula nigra) has demonstrated good tolerance of BBB. Blue ash (Fraxinus quadrangulata) has demonstrated good tolerance of EAB when it is growing on its own roots. Landscapes that contain a diverse mix of tree species (biodiversity) will be less susceptible to the impacts of host-specific pest problems like borers. A team of Ontario horticulturalists recently assembled a list of Trees for Urban Landscapes that might be planted as Alternatives to Ash. The list comprises several species that are noted to be able to survive in some tough urban landscapes.
Bronze birch borer infestations often begin with branch tip death and usually occur on the leader. Removing and destroying infested branches while the insect is in the larval stage may prolong the life of the birch tree. Infested branches may be removed prior to leaf emergence to help reduce adult emergence and lower populations in the area. Do not prune branches of birch trees once leaves have emerged in spring and early summer as adults will be emerging and the fresh pruning cuts will attract BBB adult females to lay their eggs. There is no evidence to indicate that pruning out infested branches may prolong the life of an ash tree after Emerald Ash Borer attack.
Branch trimmings and removed trees that are infested with borers should be chipped or burned as soon as possible to help prevent any tree inhabiting borers from completing their life cycle and infesting other trees. Municipalities with EAB infestations may have established special procedures for handling tree trimmings and yard waste from regulated areas. Contact your municipality for the latest information on disposal of regulated yard waste.
There are numerous native biological control agents - predators, parasites and pathogens - that use the insect pests that plague our landscape trees as a food source. Examples include woodpeckers feeding on wood boring insects and parasitic wasps that lay their eggs inside the larvae and eggs of wood borers. While there are several species of parasitoids that attack BBB eggs, the level of parasitism is not usually high enough to have any significant impact on the pest population.
When pests are introduced from one area to another (e.g. from China to North America), the biological agents that would normally help keep them in check do not exist in the new area. Classical Biological Control is the practice of importing and releasing host-specific natural enemies from a pest's native range to help control populations in the area of introduction.
EAB is native to north eastern Asia, where it is considered a sporadic pest of ash. Populations of EAB in Asia remain low due to resistant host plants, climatic conditions and a complex of natural enemies that exist there. North American and Chinese scientists have been searching for natural enemies of EAB in its' native range since 2003. Several EAB parasitoids (small stingless relatives of ants and wasps) were discovered in China. North American scientists are currently evaluating parasitoids from China for biological control of EAB here in Canada and the US. Some of these parasitoids have been released in EAB-infested regions in North America and are being evaluated for their suppression of EAB populations.
Insecticides can be important pest management tools in the management strategy for Emerald Ash Borer and Bronze Birch Borer, when trees are at risk and other methods are not adequate to protect trees. Insecticides may be toxic to non-target organisms and may persist in the environment. Insecticides should be used only where treatment is deemed necessary for the tree's health.
Tree injection is a method of application that minimizes the risk of exposure to non-target areas and organisms. In comparison to traditional application methods where the insecticide is applied as a spray application to the exterior of the tree, trunk injections deliver the insecticide directly into the selected tree. Application by trunk injection helps conserve natural enemies of pests as well as other non-target organisms that would be exposed to foliar applications of insecticides (Pest Management Regulatory Agency, 2011).
A pest control product must be registered by Health Canada's Pest Management Regulatory Agency (PMRA) under the Pest Control Products Act and classified under the Pesticides Act and Ontario Regulation 63/09 by the Ministry of the Environment (MOE) to be sold and used in Ontario. Products must be used according to label directions.
There are a few injectable insecticides registered for use in Canada for the management of Emerald Ash Borer and Bronze Birch Borer. You can view these pesticide labels on the PMRA's Label Search website by searching for the individual pest name under "Search Full Contents of E-labels". These products are used to help protect trees from infestation of labelled pests to maintain the tree health. These injectable insecticides are systemic, which means they are transported upwards through the tree. Even with systemic insecticide treatment, it can take the tree several years to recover from pest infestation. Since the pests are established in the landscape, re-treatment will be required for continued protection against future attack. Application costs may make these treatments an option for high value landscape trees but it is also available for use on trees in forestry production, nurseries, greenhouses and forests where economically feasible.
Studies have shown that it is best to begin using insecticides while trees are still relatively healthy. This is because the injectable insecticides work systemically - the insecticide must be transported within the tree in healthy sap conducting tissue (cambium). Larval galleries of these boring insects will interfere with the tree's ability to transport water, nutrients and injected insecticides from the trunk to the crown and may result in incomplete protection and efficacy. For these reasons, some researchers suggest that if >50% of the canopy has been lost, it is probably too late to save the tree (Herms et al., 2009).
The registered injectable insecticide products contain active ingredients that are toxic to bees or bee brood. Since these products are systemic and can travel up the tree to the flowers, bees can be exposed to residues in floral pollen and/or nectar resulting from tree injections. To mitigate the risk from these tree injections, label requirements state that these products can only be injected POST-BLOOM to flowering deciduous trees (e.g. ash, birch) in order to reduce impacts on bee pollinators. It should be noted that some residues may be carried over into the following season. Do not apply injectable insecticides to trees that will produce food for humans.
All of the injectable insecticide products that can be used to manage EAB and BBB are toxic to aquatic invertebrates. Do not contaminate irrigation or drinking water supplies or aquatic habitats by cleaning of equipment or disposal of wastes. Do not mix, load or clean equipment within 30 meters of wellheads or aquatic systems.
For best results, application should be made when the tree is actively transpiring (on sunny days), generally May - August, where leaves have emerged and are fully expanded, but preferably before late summer. The ability of the tree to conduct the insecticide up into the canopy may vary with tree species, geographic area, time of day, individual tree vigour or light intensity at time of treatment. If soil moisture conditions are dry, a thorough deep root zone watering prior to treatment will enhance insecticide uptake. Where possible, avoid annual applications of insecticide since the application procedure creates wound sites.
The OMAF and MRA Nursery and Landscape Report provides current pest management recommendations for the nursery and landscape sectors during the growing season. Information on tree pests and their management can also be found in OMAF and MRA publication 840, Crop Protection Guide for Nursery and Landscape Pests.
The Ontario Pesticides Act and Ontario Regulation 63/09 provide the province's regulatory framework for pesticide management to protect human health and the natural environment. The Ministry of the Environment (MOE), through the legislation, regulates the sale, use, transportation, storage and disposal of pesticides. Refer to the MOE website for regulatory information relevant to the use of pesticides and tree care:
For timely information on pest management during the growing season, refer to the OMAF and MRA Nursery-Landscape Report. Information on tree pests and their management can also be found in OMAF and MRA publication 840, Crop Protection Guide for Nursery and Landscape Pests.
Contact the OMAF and MRA Nursery Crops Specialist or Certified Crop Advisors for any additional pesticide resistance management and/or integrated pest management recommendations.
For tree care service providers, contact a Certified Arborist.
Search Canadian-approved pest control product labels for labelled uses on nursery and landscape trees. Product labels can be found on registrant company websites and at the Pest Management Regulatory Agency.
Buck, J.H. and Frappier, S. EAB Program Manual.
Herms, D.A., McCullough, D.G., Smitley, D.R., Sadof, C., Williamson, R.C. and Nixon, P.L. 2009. Insecticide options for protecting ash trees from emerald ash borer. North Central IPM centre Bulletin. 12 pp.
Marchant, K.R. 2011. York Region Emerald Ash Borer Management Plan.
Pest Management Regulatory Agency. 2011. Evaluation Report ERC2011-03. Confidor 200 SL containing Imidacloprid. Publications PMRA Health Canada.
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