The Online Gardener's Handbook 2010
Chapter 4: Vegetables
Planting Recommendations for Vegetables

Table 9: Planting Recommendations For Vegetable Crops

In Northern Ontario, seed or transplant closer to or after the later date recommended under "Recommended dates for outdoor seeding or transplanting".

Vegetable Distance between rows (cm) Distance between plants
(cm)
Planting depth (cm) Recommended
dates for outdoor Seeding
Recommended
dates for outdoor Trans-planting
Asparagus 100 30 2.5-4 May
15-30 
April 15- May 10
Bean, Bush 60 5-8 4-5 May 5 - June 15 -
Bean, Lima 60 5 4-5 May
20-30
-
Bean, Pole 60-90 20-30 4-5 May
5-25
-
Beet 45-60 3-5 1.5 Apr. 20 - June 1 -
Broccoli (early) 60-75 45-60 0.5 - 1.5 or transplants - April 25-May 5
Broccoli (late) 60-75 45-60 0.5 - 1.5 or transplants May 5 - July 10 June 1 - July 15
Brussel Sprouts 60 60 0.5 - April
5- 25
Cabbage (early) 60-75 45 0.5-1.5 - April
5- 25
Cabbage (late) 60-75 45-60 0.5-1.5 May 10 - June 1 May 24- June 10
Carrot 45-60 3-5 1.5 April 15 - June 1 -
Cauliflower (early) 60-75 45-60 0.5-1.5 or transplants - May
5-10
Cauliflower (late) 60-75 45-60 0.5-1.5 or transplants May 5 - June 20 June 25-July 25
Celery (early) 60-90 15 0.3 - May 5-15
Celery (late) 60-90 15 0.3 April
10-20
July 1-10
Chard, Swiss 60 20-30 1.5 April 10 - June 1 -
Chinese Cabbage 60-75 20-30 0.6 April 10 - June 1 -
Corn (early) 75-90 15-25 2.5 April 25 - July 1 -
Corn (late) 75-90 15-25 2.5 April 25- June 15 -
Cucumber 120-150 30-60 1.5-2.5 June
1-10
June
10-20
Eggplant 60 60 1.5 - June
1-14
Endive (early) 60 20-30 0.5-1 April 20 - May 10 -
Endive (late) 60 20-30 0.5-1 June
1-20
-
Herbs (dill, cress) 60 7 0.5-1 May
10-30
-
Herbs (summer savory, sage, thyme) 50 15 0.5-1 May
10-30
-
Kale 70 60 0.5 April 1- June 1 -
Kohlrabi 60 10 2.5 April 30 - July 1 -
Leek 60 1.5 1.2 May
10-20
May 15- June 25
Lettuce, head (early and late) 45-60 30 0.5-1 April
1- 10;
June 25 - July 5
April
1-20
Lettuce, leaf 45-60 15-30 0.5-1 April 1- August 1 -
Muskmelon 120 30-60 1.5-2.5 - May 20 - June 10
Okra 60 30 2.5 - May 25 - June 1
Onion (seed or set) 45-60 5-8 1.5-3 April
5 - 25
-
Onion (transplants) 45-60 8-10 - - April
10 - 20
Parsley 60 10 0.5-1 May
10 - 30
May
10 - 30
Parsnip 45-90 2.5-5 2.5-5 April 10 - May 25 -
Peas 45-90 2.5-5 2.5-5 April 10 - May 25 -
Pepper 60 60 1.5 - June
1 - 20
Potato (early) 75-90 25-30 10 April 5 - May5 -
Potato (late) 75-90 25-30 10 May 1 - June 1 -
Pumpkin 180-250 60-120 2.5 May 25 - June 15 -
Radish 30 2.5 1.2

April 1 - May 1
or
Aug. 1 - Sept. 1

-
Rhubarb 90 90 - - April 14 - May 1
Spinach (early) 45-60 10-15 1.5-2.5 April
1 - 20
-
Spinach (late) 45-60 10-15 1.5-2.5 July 15 - Aug. 1 -
Squash 180-250 60-120 2-3 May 25 - June 10 -
Tomato (unstaked) 90 90 1.2 or transplants - May 15 - June 15
Tomato (staked) 60 45-60 1.2 - May 15 - June 16
Turnip 45-60 15-20 0.5-1 June 10 - July 1 -
Watermelon 120-180 30-60 2-3 - May 25 - June 10

 

Vegetable Time
from Indoor Seed to Outdoor Transplant
Days
to Harvest
Average Sowings Remarks
Asparagus 1 year 3 years -
Transplant seedlings to permanent bed the next spring, before the buds on the crown break dormancy.
Bean, Bush - 50-70 4
Does best on warm loam where nights are dry. Plants bear more pods if picked young.
Bean, Lima - 70-80 1
Warm climate preferred.
Bean, Pole - 60-70 1
Grows best when trained on fence or poles.
Beet - 55-70 Many
Use thinned plants for greens.
Broccoli (early) 4-6 weeks 60-70 1
In spring transplant as early as possible to miss summer heat. (Late sowing also helps plants escape summer heat at heading time.) Always cut broccoli when the individual buds on the clusters are still tight. After the central head is harvested, small side branches develop and may be picked every few days.
Broccoli (late) - 60-70 1
Brussel Sprouts 4-6 weeks 70+ 2
Nip out growing points of plants once Sprouts start to form.
Cabbage (early) 4-6 weeks 70-80 2
Heavy feeders. Grow on rich soil. Bolds more easily when exposed to prolonged cool weather, so do not plant earlier than recommended.
Cabbage (late) 4-6 weeks 85+ -
Do not attempt late sowing in districts with short growing seasons.
Carrot - 65-75 many
Thin at bunching stage. In heavy soils use short varieties.
Cauliflower (early) 4-6 weeks 60-75 1 Tie leaves over heads when nearing maturity. Purple type does not need tying. Harvest before heads become coarse and "ricey".
Cauliflower (late) 4-6 weeks 60-70 1 Can be transplanted well into June for fall maturing.
Celery (early) 10-12 weeks 120-150 1 Seed heavily as germination is often poor. Do not sow late in districts with short growing seasons.
Celery (late) 10-12 weeks 120-150 1 Seed heavily as germination is often poor. Do not sow late in districts with short growing seasons.
Chard, Swiss - 55+ many Harvest outside stalks only.
Chinese Cabbage - 75+ 1 Sow late as it grows best in the fall.
Corn (early) - 60-70 2 Plant at least three or four rows of the same variety to ensure good pollination and kernel formation. Plant early and late varieties at the same time. Make successive plantings of late varieties every 15-20 days. If only one early or late variety is replanted, do it one week after first planting.
Corn (late) - 80-95 2 Plant at least three or four rows of the same variety to ensure good pollination and kernel formation. Plant early and late varieties at the same time. Make successive plantings of late varieties every 15-20 days. If only one early or late variety is replanted, do it one week after first planting.
Cucumber 4 weeks 60-70 2 If started indoors, plant in pots. Harvest before fruits yellow.
Eggplant 8-10 weeks 70-80 1 Grow in a protected site in rich, warm soil. Harvest before the glossy stem colour becomes dull and the flesh tough.
Endive (early) - 90+ 2 Sow in the spring as early as possible or grow as a fall crop.
Endive (late) - 90+ 2 Grows best in the fall.
Herbs (dill, cress) - As required 1 Easy to grow.
Herbs (summer savory, sage, thyme) - As required 2 Barely cover seed.
Kale - 55-60 1 Light autumn frost improves the quality.
Kohlrabi - 60+ 3 Use when stems are slightly smaller than tennis balls.
Leek 8 weeks 150 1 Can be grown in the garden until late fall; very frost hardy.
Lettuce, head (early and late) 8-10 weeks 75-85 Many Sow either early or late, as it grows best if heading does not occur during period of summer heat.
Lettuce, leaf - 40-45 Many Extra tender if not thinned.
Muskmelon 4-6 weeks 80-120 2 Guard against cucumber beetle.
Okra 4 weeks 50-60 2 Required heat and a lot of attention. Used to flavour soup and stews. Pick young tender pods every other day.
Onion (seed or set) 4 weeks - 2 Sets favoured for early bulbs and green onions.
Onion (transplants) 10 weeks 115-135 1  
Parsley - 110 1 When potted, also used during winter to garnish food.
Parsnip - 60-75 2-3 Must use fresh seeds each year. Very slow to germinate.
Peas - 60-75 2-3 Sow early. Will not grow successfully in summer heat.
Pepper 7-10 weeks 65-75 1 Needs a protected site with rich warm soil. Green peppers are peppers that have not fully ripened.
Potato (early) - 80-100 1 Fertilize according to soil test. If a test is not available, work 80 mg/m of row of 8-16-16 before planting. When the crop is 15-30 cm high, broadcast 15 g/m of row of 34-0-0 and hill the crop immediately. Control insects. Keep harvested tubers from light or skins will turn green. Later varieties store better than early ones. Yukon gold is an excellent keeper.
Potato (late) - 110-130 1 Fertilize according to soil test. If a test is not available, work 80 mg/m of row of 8-16-16 before planting. When the crop is 15-30 cm high, broadcast 15 g/m of row of 34-0-0 and hill the crop immediately. Control insects. Keep harvested tubers from light or skins will turn green. Later varieties store better than early ones. Yukon gold is an excellent keeper.
Pumpkin - 100-110 2 Place plenty of manure under trench in which seed is sown.
Radish - 25-35 4 Will grow right up to the first snow flurries. Lack of water causes no flavour and woody texture.
Rhubarb - 2-3 years - Requires a rich topsoil.
Spinach (early) - 40-45 2 Does not grow on hot, sandy soil. Does best under cool conditions and on rich loam.
Spinach (late) - 40-45 2 Does not grow on hot, sandy soil. Does best under cool conditions and on rich loam.
Squash - 95-110 2  
Tomato (unstaked) 6-8 weeks 62-66 2 Use a 1:2:3 fertilizer ratio as a side dressing after first flower cluster has set fruit.
Tomato (staked) 6-8 weeks 75-82 1 Use a 1:2:3 fertilizer ratio as a side dressing after first flower cluster has set fruit.
Turnip - 50-55 1 Best as a fall crop. Will grow to first snow. Keeps well in fruit cellar.
Watermelon 4-5 weeks 80-95 2 Use a 1:2:3 fertilizer ratio at planting time.

 

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For more information:
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E-mail: ag.info.omafra@ontario.ca
Author: OMAFRA Staff
Creation Date: 21 July 2005
Last Reviewed: 25 June 2010