Sandbur, Long-Spined
(Cenchrus longispinus Hack.)

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Table of Contents

  1. History
  2. Life Cycle
  3. Distinguishing Characteristics
  4. Control in Corn
  5. Control in Soybeans
  6. Control in Winter Wheat

History

A member of the grass family and a native species. As the name implies, this grass species is found predominately on sandy soils.

Life Cycle

Annual, reproducing only by seed.

Distinguishing Characteristics

Once long-spined sandbur is in flower (or headed) it cannot be confused with any other annual grass as there is a group of sharp, spiny burs at the end of each stem. At the seedling stage, this weed could be confused with one of the foxtails since it has a hairy ligule. However, its leaf sheath is split with membraneous margins, a characteristic that distinguishes it from the foxtail species. One trick to identifying sandbur seedlings is to dig around, or dig up the emerged seedlings. If the population is in fact long-spined sandbur you will more than likely see a number of burs either in the soil, or at the base of the seedling.

Long-Spined Sandbur Pictures
Each thumbnail image links to a larger image

Link to a larger photo of Long-spined Sandbur
Link to a larger photo of Long-spined Sandbur
Link to a larger photo of Long-spined Sandbur

 

Herbicide Control in Field Corn

Pre-emergent Control

None of the pre-emergent herbicides tested provided over 80% control of long-spined sandbur (Table 1). Post-emergent grass herbicides (i.e. AccentT, Option 35DF and Ultim) are more effective at controlling sandbur in field corn.

Table 1. Visual control of long-spined sandbur usuing various pre-emergent herbicides.
Active Ingredient Trade Name (product rate/acre)
% Control
isoxaflutole+atrazine
Converge
73
s-metolachlor/benoxacor/atrazine
Primextra II Magnum
70
pendimethalin
Prowl
64
s-metolachlor/benoxacor
Dual II Magnum
57
dimethanamid
Frontier
57
flufenacet/metribuzin
Axiom
51

Post Emergent Control

The post-emergent grass herbicides will provide over 80% visual control of long-spined sandbur (Table 2). Alternatively, several of the "one pass" post-emergent herbicide programs in corn provide effective control of long-spined sandbur (Table 3).

Table 2. Control of long-spined sandbur in field corn using various post-emergent herbicides.
Active Ingredient Trade Name (application timing)
% Control
foramsulfuron
Option 35DF
91
nicosulfuron/rimsulfuron
Ultim
nicosulfuron
Accent
84

 

Table 3. Visual control of long-spined sandbur with "one-pass" post-emergent herbcide programs in corn.
Active Ingredient Trade Name
% Control
pendimethalin + nicosulfuron + dicamba
Prowl + Accent + Banvel II
95
rimsulfuron + s-metolachlor/benoxacor + dicamba
Battalion
90
nicosulfuron/rimsulfuron + diflufenzopyr/dicamba
Ultim Total
88
  • Source: Dr. Peter Sikkema, Ridgetown College, University of Guelph.
  • Number of Trials: Table 1 is based on a summary of 4 field trials in Ontario. Table 2 is based on a summary of 6 field trials in Ontario. Table 3 is based on a summary of 2 field trials in Ontario.
  • Herbicide Rates: Rates used in this trial are listed in OMAFRA Publication 75 - Guide to Weed Control.
  • Weed Stage: Long-spined sandbur had not yet emerged for the pre-emergent applications and was at the 2 to 6 leaf stage at the time of all post-emergent applications.

What has been your experience?

We want your feedback. Let us know what you have experienced with these or other products, as well as any other effective management strategies.


Herbicide Control in Soybeans

Pre-emergent Control

None of the pre-emergent herbicides tested provided over 80% control of long-spined sandbur (Table1). Post-emergent grass herbicides (i.e.Assure II, Venture L, Excel Super) are more effective at controlling sandbur in soybean.

Table 1. Visual control of long-spined sandbur usuing various pre-emergent herbicides.
Active Ingredient Trade Name (product rate/acre)
% Control
imazethapyr
Pursuit
70
flufenacet/metribuzin
Axiom
23
s-metolachlor/benoxacor
Dual II Magnum
13
dimethanamid
Frontier
13

Post Emergent Control

Assure II, Venture L and Excel Super should provide over 80% visual control of long-spined sandbur (Table 2). Alternatively, broadspectrum herbicides like Pursuit and Cleansweep should provide effective control of long-spined sandbur when applied "post" (Table 3). Although not tested, glyphosate should provide effective control of long-spined sandbur in "Roundup Ready" soybeans.

Table 2. Control of long-spined sandbur in soybean using various post-emergent herbicides.
Active Ingredient Trade Name (application timing)
% Control
quizalofop-p-ethyl
Assure II
90
fenoxaprop-p-ethyl
Excel Super
85
fluazifop-p-butyl
Venture L
81
sethoxydim
Poast Ultra
76
clethodim
Select
71

Table 3. Visual control of long-spined sandbur with PURSUIT and CLEANSWEEP in soybean.
Active Ingredient Trade Name
% Control
imazethapyr
Pursuit
imazethapyr + bentazon
Cleansweep
86
  • Source: Dr. Peter Sikkema, Ridgetown College, University of Guelph.
  • Number of Trials: Table 1 is based on a summary of 1 field trial in Ontario. Table 2 is based on a summary of 5 field trials in Ontario. Table 3 is based on a summary of 2 field trials in Ontario.
  • Herbicide Rates: Rates used in this trial are listed in OMAFRA Publication 75 - Guide to Weed Control.
  • Weed Stage: Long-spined sandbur had not yet emerged for the pre-emergent applications and was at the 2 to 6 leaf stage at the time of all post-emergent applications.

What has been your experience?

We want your feedback. Let us know what you have experienced with these or other products, as well as any other effective management strategies.


Herbicide Control in Winter Wheat

No field trials have evaluated long-spined sandbur control in winter wheat.

What has been your experience?
We want your feedback. Let us know what you have experienced with these or other products, as well as any other effective management strategies.


Related links

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For more information:
Toll Free: 1-877-424-1300
E-mail: ag.info.omafra@ontario.ca
Author: Mike Cowbrough - Weed Management (Field Crops) Program Lead/OMAFRA
Creation Date: 15 April 2005
Last Reviewed: 9 January 2006