Horse-nettle (Solanum carolinense L.)

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Table of Contents

  1. History
  2. Life Cycle
  3. Distinguishing Characteristics
  4. Control in Corn
  5. Control in Soybeans
  6. Control in Winter Wheat

History

A member of the nightshade or potato family. Horse-nettle is not an overly common weed, but is certainly problematic in field crops once it has established. In general, horse-nettle prefers sandy soils.

Life Cycle

Perennial, reproducing by seed and underground rhizomes.

Distinguishing Characteristics

It is distinguished by its very spiny stems and leaves, underground roots (rhizomes), lobed leaves, white flowers and smooth yellow berries.

Horse Nettle Pictures

Each thumbnail image links to a larger image

Link to a larger photo of Horse-nettle

Link to a larger photo of Horse-nettle

Link to a larger photo of Horse-nettle


Herbicide Control in Field Corn

Post Emergent Control

In conventional corn, none of the post-emergent broadleaf herbicides provide greater than 80% visual control (Table 1). However, tank-mixing a broadleaf herbicide with one of the post-emergent grass herbicides (i.e. ULTIM, ACCENT) will provide better control of horsenettle than if each product were applied alone. In "Roundup ready" (RR) corn, a sequential application with glyphosate at 1 L/ac should provide good control of horsenettle (Table 1).

Table 1. Horse-nettle control in corn using various post-emergent broadleaf herbicides.

Active Ingredient Trade Name
% Control
glyphosate;glyphosate
glyphosate;glyphosate (RR corn only)
98
dicamba/atrazine
MARKSMAN
75
atrazine/2,4-D
SHOTGUN
72
dicamba
BANVEL II
64
primisulfuron-methyl/dicamba
SUMMIT
62
diflufenzopyr/dicamba
DISTINCT
49
prosulfuron + dicamba
PEAKPLUS
45
bromoxynil + atrazine
PARDNER or KORIL + atrazine
23
atrazine
Various Trade Names Exist
22

 

Table 2. Horse-nettle control in corn with various post-emergent tank-mixes.
Active Ingredient Trade Name
% Control
nicosulfuron + primisulfuron-methyl/dicamba
ACCENT + SUMMIT
94
nicosulfuron/rimsulfuron + dicamba
ULTIM + BANVEL II
89
nicosulfuron/rimsulfuron + diflufenzopyr/dicamba
ULTIM + DISTINCT
89
nicosulfuron/rimsulfuron + dicamba/atrazine
ULTIM + MARKSMAN
87
nicosulfuron/rimsulfuron + prosulfuron + dicamba
ULTIM + PEAKPLUS
87

Source: Dr. Peter Sikkema, University of Guelph.

Number of Trials:

Table 1 is based on 3 field trials in Ontario.

Table 2 is based on 5 field trials in Ontario.

Herbicide Rates: Rates used in this trial are listed in OMAFRA Publication 75 - Guide to Weed Control.

Weed Stage: Horse-nettle was in between the 2 to 8 leaf stage at the time of all post-emergent applications.

What has been your experience?

We want your feedback. Let us know what you have experienced with these or other products, as well as any other effective management strategies.


Herbicide Control in Soybeans

Post-Emergent Control in Soybean

Split glyphosate applications in "Roundup Ready" (RR) soybeans offer the greatest level of horse-nettle control. If growing conventional soybeans, FIRSTRATE has provided the best activity of horse-nettle, but it can only be described as supression of this difficult to control weed. Other conventional broadleaf herbicides like BLAZER and BASAGRAN FORTE, have provided poor control of horse-nettle.

Table 1. Horse-nettle control in soybean with glyphosate and FIRSTRATE.
Active Ingredient Trade Name (application timing) % Control
glyphosate;glyphosate
glyphosate; glyphosate (post - RR soys only) 98
glyphosate
glyphosate (2 L/ac post - RR soys only) 93
glyphosate + cloransulam-methyl
glyphosate (1 L/ac) + FIRSTRATE (post - RR soys only) 87
glyphosate
glyphosate (1 L/ac post - RR soys only) 84
cloransulam-methyl
FIRSTRATE (post) 78

Source: Dr. Peter Sikkema, University of Guelph.

Number of Trials: Table 1 is based on 6 field trials in Ontario.

Herbicide Rates: Rates used in this trial are listed in OMAFRA Publication 75 - Guide to Weed Control.

Weed Stage: Horse-nettle was in between the 2 to 8 leaf stage at the time of all post-emergent applications.

What has been your experience?

We want your feedback. Let us know what you have experienced with these or other products, as well as any other effective management strategies.


Herbicide Control in Winter Wheat

No research trials have evaluated the control of horse-nettle in winter wheat.

What has been your experience?

We want your feedback. Let us know what you have experienced with these or other products, as well as any other effective management strategies.


For more information:
Toll Free: 1-877-424-1300
Local: (519) 826-4047
Email: ag.info@omaf.gov.on.ca
Author: Mike Cowbrough - Weed Management (Field Crops) Program Lead/OMAFRA
Creation Date: 05 April 2005
Last Reviewed: 05 April 2005