Figure 1. Red clover, crimson clover, and hairy vetch perform relatively well (Table 1), but the shade index (biomass under X% shade / biomass at full sun) for legumes is more mixed and declines more rapidly (Figure 1). As for grasses, annual or Italian ryegrass are the top performers, though they can be tricky to manage from a termination standpoint. Tall fescue and orchardgrass have worked well in some studies, but cereals generally do not. It is interesting to note that plant height is not always correlated to biomass.

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