2013 Ontario Trap Catches: Spotted Wing Drosophila

Current updates for Ontario

This project was made possible by the Ontario Berry Growers Association and the Ontario Highbush Blueberry Growers Association. Funding assistance to the OBGA was provided by Dow AgroSciences Canada, Engage Agro Corp., Bayer CropSciences Inc. and E.I. du Pont Canada Company. We are grateful for the continued support of the HJ Heinz Co. for the apple cider vinegar used as bait in our traps.

This project was also funded in part through Growing Forward 2, a federal-provincial-territorial initiative. The Agricultural Adaptation Council assists in the delivery of Growing Forward 2 in Ontario.

November 2013 - Spotted wing drosophila is an important direct pest that attacks fresh fruit and affects market quality. We have been monitoring for spotted wing drosophila in Ontario since 2011 (Figure 1). Every year is a little bit different but we have observed some definite trends. Unfortunately, this pest is here to stay!

This graph shows the average number of SWD flies per positive trap

This graph shows the average number of SWD flies per positive trap. The first trap catch was on July 9th in sweet cherries. The number of flies remained very low throughout July with an average around 5 flies per trap. In August, the average began to increase with a significant jump to over 50 adults on August 16th. Numbers peaked on Aug 31 at over 120 flies per positive trap. Average has begun to drop, however samples are still being processed.

Traps were set out at over 65 sites across Ontario in 2013. Traps were set up in commercial crops as well as wild hosts near susceptible crops. SWD adults have been captured at 100% of monitored sites. The first capture was on July 9th in Norfolk county in a trap located in sweet cherries. Over the next couple of weeks, many new sites were found in southwestern and south central Ontario (Table 1). Our data will be used to validate and fine-tune a degree-day model to predict early emergence of SWD in various regions of Ontario.

Table 1: First SWD trap captures by region, 2013
Region Date of first SWD trap capture
Southwestern Ontario July 9th
South central Ontario July 15th
Eastern Ontario July 24th
Central Ontario July 29th
Northern Ontario (New Liskeard) Sept 3rd

After the first trap capture in early July, the average number of SWD flies in traps remained low (10 or less per positive trap) until the middle of August. In the week of August 17th, average number of flies caught per trap jumped significantly from 10 adults to just under 60 adults. This number has continued to increase each week and the average for the week ending August 30th was up to 130 adults per positive trap. The jump in trap captures in mid to late August coincided with growers starting to notice SWD damage to raspberry and blueberry crops.

Early in the season the highest numbers of adults were being trapped in wild hosts around field edges, and in summer raspberries just at the end of harvest. As the season progressed, more fruit became susceptible and numbers began increasing in other berries, including blueberries, strawberries, and elderberries. There was also an increase in some tree fruit such as cherries and peaches, especially when fruit was left hanging after harvest.

Meanwhile, in addition to trapping SWD, we collected fruit weekly from certain sites and set this fruit up in rearing cages to see if SWD adult flies would eventually emerge.

Results from fruit rearing samples indicate that the first SWD larvae were often present in fruit before we caught adult flies in traps.

Date fruit was collected Type of fruit collected Comments
July 1 Wild raspberries First SWD detected in 2013. First SWD was trapped at this site was July 12.
July 2 Unsprayed saskatoons First SWD was trapped in this region was July -12.
July 9 Sweet cherries First SWD found in commercial fruit crop in 2013.
July 18 Summer bearing red raspberries First SWD found in commercial raspberries. SWD was not trapped at this site until July 27-Aug 2.
July 19 Wild mulberry First SWD found in wild mulberry fruit.
July 29 Fall bearing raspberry First SWD in fall- bearing raspberry fruit. SWD was first trapped at this site July 20-26.
August 7 Blueberry First SWD in blueberry fruit. SWD was trapped at this site was July 20-26.

During the weeks of August 7 to August 20 we reared the highest numbers of SWD from fresh blueberries. During the weeks of August 19 to September 5 we reared the highest numbers of SWD from fall bearing raspberries.

We have a lot more to learn from the data collected in 2013. Data analysis is in progress. Watch for updates at grower meetings and at www.ontario.ca/spottedwing

September 26, 2013 - Spotted wing drosophila populations are high throughout the province, even in northern Ontario. Growers should continue to apply insecticides to control this pest in day-neutral strawberries, blackberries and fall bearing raspberries. If you get behind on harvest, SWD will be present in fruit and affect fruit quality.

Recent heavy rains have likely created problems getting ripe fruit picked on time. A good approach is to strip all ripe and over-ripe fruit from the field, apply an insecticide for SWD to protect ripening fruit, then start harvesting again. At this time, SWD pressure is high and daily harvest of raspberries and blackberries is required. Cover the whole field every day if possible. Day neutral strawberries should be completely harvested at least three times a week. Place all harvested product in the cooler as soon as possible after harvest.

We do not recommend spraying woods, bush and fencerows. These treatments will not be effective, and they will contribute to the decline of pollinators and other beneficial insects needed for integrated pest management programs.

In spite of our efforts to alert growers to SWD problems, the problem is often unrecognized. If you see juice stains in the flat within a few days of harvest, SWD is likely a problem. Harvested fruit is quickly soft and often collapses.

Two spotted spider mite populations are building up in raspberry and strawberry fields. The extra insecticide used for SWD is likely affecting the balance between predators/beneficial insects and pests. However, miticdes are not required this late in the season, unless populations are high on day-neutral strawberries which will be overwintered under floating row cover.

 

Total SWD finds per week

Week ending # positive sites this week Average # flies per positive trap # flies total this week
July 5
0
0
0
July 12
4
1.25
5
July 19
9
2.89
26
July 26
29
3.14
154
Aug 2
42
11.25
956
Aug 9
42
10.22
1104
Aug 16
50
56.02
7619
Aug 23
51
92.53
12677
Aug 31
48
123.48
17287
Sept 6
36
114.42
12815
Sept 13*
22
57.14
7999

*samples still being processed for this week

Summary of counties where SWD has been found - 2013

510: Southwestern Ontario
County/region # sites monitored # sites positive in 2013
Essex
12
10
Kent
5
4
Lambton
1
1
Elgin
2
1
Middlesex
2
2
Oxford
3
3
Norfolk
8
8
Brant
2
2
Waterloo
1
1
Grey
2
2
Wellington
1
1
Huron
1
1

705: Northern and Central Ontario
County/region # sites monitored # sites positive in 2013
Simcoe
1
1
Peterborough
1
0
Temiskaming
1
1

905: South Central Ontario
County/region # sites monitored # sites positive in 2013
Haldimand
1
1
Niagara
8
8
York
2
2
Halton
1
1
Durham
2
2

613: Eastern Ontario
County/region # sites monitored # sites positive in 2013
Prince Edward
3
3
Northumberland
1
1
Frontenac
1
1
Ottawa-Carleton
3
3
Stormont, Dundas, Glengarry
1
1

Totals
66
61

Previous Weeks in 2013

September 13 - We are monitoring at over 65 sites across Ontario. To date, SWD adults have been captured at 60 sites. The first capture was on July 9th in Norfolk county. One male was found in a trap located in sweet cherries. Over the next couple of weeks, many new sites were found in the southwestern and south central Ontario.

First finds by region:

  • Southwestern ON: July 9th
  • South central ON: July 15th
  • Eastern ON: July 24th
  • Central ON: July 29th
  • Northern ON: Sept 3rd
After the initial find in early July, the average number of flies being trapped remained low (10 or less per positive trap) until the middle of August. In the week of August 17th, average number of flies caught per trap jumped significantly from 10 adults to just under 60 adults. This number has continued to increase each week and the average for the week ending August 30th was up to 130 adults per positive trap.
Early in the season the highest numbers of adults were being trapped in wild hosts around field edges, and in summer raspberries. As the season progressed, more fruit became susceptible and numbers began increasing in other berries, including blueberries, strawberries, and elderberries. There was also an increase in some tree fruit such as cherries and peaches, especially when fruit

September 4, 2013 - Spotted wing drosophila is present throughout Ontario and all growers with susceptible crops should be taking steps to control this pest. As the season progresses, SWD populations are continuing to build up, placing susceptible crops at higher risk for infestation.

We are currently monitoring at over 60 sites and have found SWD at 55 locations. Trap catches are increasing to extremely high numbers (>100) at many sites.

Blueberry harvest has ended early at some locations because of poor fruit quality due to SWD.

In addition to weekly insecticide sprays for this pest, fall-bearing raspberry growers should be very diligent about frequent and thorough harvest

Very high numbers of SWD flies have been reared from wild blackberries and elderberries indicating that populations are building up around crops. It is important to keep commercial crops protected with an insecticide. However, spraying wild hosts is not recommended.

Insecticides for SWD: www.omafra.gov.on.ca/english/crops/facts/swd-registrations.htm

August 22, 2013

Growers should assume spotted wing drosophila is now present throughout Ontario.

All growers with susceptible crops should be taking steps to control this pest. As the season progresses, SWD populations are continuing to build up, placing susceptible crops at higher risk for infestation.

SWD continues to be found at new locations in Ontario. We are currently monitoring at over 60 sites and have found SWD at 54 locations. Trap catches have jumped significantly this week and many sites have extremely high numbers (>100). The highest counts are coming from traps located in raspberries, wild hosts and peaches; however all fruit that is ripening or being harvested is susceptible.

Salt water tests: Salt water tests should be used to evaluate the quality of berry crops at harvest. Place a sample of marketable, fresh fruit in a shallow dish or tray and submerge it in salt water (1 part salt; 16 parts water). Watch for small larvae (1-5 mm in length) which will float to the surface in a few minutes.

Salt water tests conducted over the last few weeks indicate larvae in summer red raspberries and unsprayed blueberries.

Rearing results: Higher numbers of SWD adults have emerged from sour cherries, sweet cherries, raspberries, blueberries and wild hosts in southern Ontario (Norfolk, Haldimand, Middlesex, Oxford, Brant) that were collected July 29-August 12. This indicates that the pest is building populations in commercial crops as well as wild hosts.

Recommendations:

Fall-bearing raspberries, blueberries, blackberries, elderberries and day neutral strawberries are among the most susceptible crops at this time. Tree fruit such as plums and tree-ripened peaches are also at risk. Remember that SWD larvae will continue to develop in fruit left behind at harvest, so pick clean to reduce pressure on late-harvested crops.

Raspberries: Post-harvest sprays are recommended to reduce risk to nearby susceptible crops such as fall bearing raspberries or blueberries.

Fall bearing raspberries: Low volumes of fruit are ripening now at the base of the canes. Harvest this, or strip it off, in order to keep populations from building up in these fields. Begin to spray for SWD as the main crop begins to ripen. Use salt water tests to determine how well your spray program is working.

Blueberries: Spray insecticide weekly as the crop is ripening and being harvested. Try to pick parts of the field clean, and follow up with an insecticide in that block.

Day neutral strawberries: Watch for damage which looks like bruising on one side of the fruit. Include an insecticide for SWD every 7-14 days.

Elderberries: Begin a weekly insecticide program as the fruit is colouring.

Blackberries: Apply weekly insecticides throughout harvest.

Tree fruit: Plums, nectarines and tree ripened peach appear to be susceptible to SWD. Use one of the insecticides registered for SWD as your pre-pick option for OFM.

Table grapes: Injury has been reported in some other production areas. Consider SWD when selecting insecticides for other pre-harvest pests.

Wild hosts: Do not spray insecticides on wild hosts.

Insecticides for SWD: http://www.omafra.gov.on.ca/english/crops/facts/swd-registrations.htm

Talk to your neighbours! SWD is a manageable problem, but the first step for control is awareness. SWD is causing significant damage where growers are not aware of the problem. The first sign of trouble is unusually soft and juicy fruit. Talk to your neighbours at market and down the road about SWD.

Encourage them to review the information at www.Ontario.ca/spottedwing

Fruit quality in the berry industry is everyone's concern.

August 15, 2013

Growers should assume spotted wing drosophila is now present throughout all of Ontario. All growers with susceptible crops should be taking steps to control this pest. As the season progresses, SWD populations will continue to build up.

We are monitoring at approximately 60 sites across Ontario and SWD has been detected at 50 of these locations. Over the last couple of weeks, there has been a large increase in the number of adults being trapped, with the highest numbers coming from wild hosts and raspberries. At few locations, numbers are extremely high (>100 adults).

Salt water tests: Salt water tests should be used to evaluate the quality of berry crops at harvest. Place a sample of marketable, fresh fruit in a shallow dish or tray and submerge it in salt water (1 part salt; 16 parts water). Watch for small larvae (1-5 mm in length) which will float to the surface in a few minutes. This week, salt water tests indicate larvae in summer red raspberries and unsprayed blueberries.

Rearing results: SWD adults have emerged from sour cherries, sweet cherries, raspberries and blueberries in southern Ontario (Norfolk, Haldimand, Middlesex, Oxford, Brant) that were collected July 20-August 7, indicating significant movement of SWD into commercial crops at this time. SWD adults have also emerged from mulberries and honeysuckle berries, indicating that this pest continues to build up in wild hosts.

Recommendations: Fall-bearing raspberries, blueberries, blackberries, elderberries and day neutral strawberries are among the most susceptible crops at this time. Tree-ripened stone fruit such as late peaches and plums are also at risk.

Raspberries: Post-harvest sprays are recommended to reduce risk to nearby susceptible crops such as fall bearing raspberries or blueberries.

Fall bearing raspberries: Low volumes of fruit are ripening now at the base of the canes. Harvest this, or strip it off, in order to keep populations from building up in these fields. Begin to spray for SWD as the main crop begins to ripen. Use salt water tests to determine how well your spray program is working.

Blueberries: Spray insecticide weekly as the crop is ripening and being harvested. Try to pick parts of the field clean, and follow up with an insecticide in that block.

Day neutral strawberries: Watch for damage which looks like bruising on one side of the fruit. Include an insecticide for SWD every 7-14 days.

Elderberries: Begin a weekly insecticide program as the fruit is colouring.

Blackberries: Apply weekly insecticides throughout harvest.

Peaches and plums: Tree ripened fruit appear to be susceptible to SWD. Use one of the insecticides registered for SWD as your pre-pick option for OFM.

Table grapes: Injury has been reported in some other production areas. Consider SWD when selecting insecticides for other pre-harvest pests.

Wild hosts: Do not spray insecticides on wild hosts.

Insecticides for SWD are listed at www.omafra.gov.on.ca/english/crops/facts/swd-registrations.htm

Talk to your neighbours! SWD is a manageable problem, but the first step for control is awareness. SWD is causing significant damage where growers are not aware of the problem. The first sign of trouble is unusually soft and juicy fruit. Talk to your neighbours at market and down the road about SWD.

Encourage them to review the information at www.Ontario.ca/spottedwing

Fruit quality in the berry industry is everyone's concern.

August 9, 2013

SWD activity continues to increase in all regions of Ontario. We are monitoring at over 60 sites across Ontario and have captured spotted wing at 46 sites, including new finds in eastern and central Ontario.

Trap catches are increasing each week and numbers are very high at some locations. However, trap catches may not always be indicative of pest pressure; SWD is active in all major fruit growing regions of Ontario and berry crops and tender fruit are susceptible to SWD damage.

Growers should watch for unusually soft or leaky fruit, poor shelf life, and premature breakdown. Harvest early, clean and often; SWD adults may emerge from dropped fruit and multiply in the crop.

A salt water test can also be used to check for larvae. Instructions can be found at this link: http://www.omafra.gov.on.ca/english/crops/facts/swd-monitor.htm#salt

Salt test results: This week, a salt test on blueberries yielded a higher number of larvae (>5 larvae).

Rearing results: SWD flies have emerged from summer and fall raspberries collected on July 29 and from sour cherry collected on July 15. Higher numbers of SWD are beginning to emerge from fruit samples (10 - 20 adults per sample)

Recommendations:

Raspberry growers: Post-harvest sprays are recommended to reduce risk to nearby susceptible crops such as fall bearing raspberries or blueberries.

Fall bearing raspberries: Low volumes of fruit are ripening now at the base of the canes. Harvest this, or strip it off, in order to keep populations from building up in these fields.

Blueberry growers: Spray insecticide weekly as the crop is ripening and being harvested. Try to pick parts of the field clean, and follow up with an insecticide in that block.

Day neutral strawberries: Watch for damage which looks like bruising on one side of the fruit. Include an insecticide for SWD every 7-14 days.

Insecticides for SWD: http://www.omafra.gov.on.ca/english/crops/facts/swd-registrations.htm

August 7- Spotted wing drosophila update
SWD activity continues to increase in all regions of Ontario. We are monitoring at over 60 sites across Ontario and have captured spotted wing at 41 sites, including new finds in eastern and cetral Ontario.

Trap catch numbers are increasing each week. Protect berry crops and susceptible tender fruit as they are ripening and throughout harvest. Watch for unusually soft or leaky fruit, poor shelf life, and premature breakdown.

August 2- Spotted wing drosophila update
Spotted wing drosophila (SWD) is moving into crops now and is no longer confined to wild hosts. SWD activity is increasing every day. We have been catching SWD at new sites, across Ontario, including new finds in eastern Ontario. In addition, the number of trap captures is increasing, both in crops and in wild hosts.

Degree day model for SWD: According to the degree day model from Oregon State, SWD has passed peak emergence of second generation in southern Ontario and peak egg laying by 2nd generation adults is occurring now. In eastern Ontario, 1-2 weeks later, the degree day model suggests that 2nd generation SWD is also emerging, and you can expect peak egg laying for this generation in the coming week.

Salt test monitoring results: Some of our scouts have been doing salt water tests on 50-100 raspberries and blueberries fruit each week in in Norfolk/Elgin/Oxford/Brant/Middlesex areas. This week we found low levels of larvae (1 per sample) in fruit from several raspberry sites.

Rearing results: SWD flies emerged fruit collected July 18 and July 23 in commercial raspberry crops. So far we have not reared a lot of SWD from collected fruit.

Recommendations to all growers: SWD populations will build up very rapidly in seasonal conditions. Protect berry crops and susceptible tender fruit as they are ripening and throughout harvest. Watch for unusually soft or leaky fruit, poor shelf life, and premature breakdown.

Recommendations for berry growers:

Raspberry growers are approaching end of harvest. It is important to harvest, cool and market fruit quickly. Insecticides after harvest should be applied to reduce risk to nearby susceptible crops such as fall bearing raspberries or blueberries.

Fall bearing raspberries: Low volumes of fruit are ripening now at the base of the canes. Harvest this, or strip it off, in order to keep populations from building up in these fields.

Blueberry growers: This is a critical time for control, try to spray an insecticide every week as the crop is ripening and being harvested. Try to pick parts of the field clean, and then follow up with an insecticide in that block. You will need extra labour to harvest ripe fruit in a shorter period of time than usual.

Day neutral strawberries: Watch for damage which looks like bruising on one side of the fruit. Include an insecticide for SWD every 7-14 days.

Insecticides for SWD: http://www.omafra.gov.on.ca/english/crops/facts/swd-registrations.htm
More information: www.Ontario.ca/spottedwing

July 25 - Trap captures continue to increase this week, with SWD now being detected in 10 different counties across Ontario. SWD has been trapped primarily in wild hosts outside of commercial crops, but some adults have also been found in raspberry and sweet cherry crops.

If SWD is present in your region, fruit that is ripening or being harvested is susceptible to SWD damage. Berry growers and tender fruit growers should protect ripe and ripening fruit on a weekly basis at this time.

Numbers in trap catches are also beginning to increase, with some locations trapping more than 10 adults. This is an indication that SWD may have completed a generation and populations are increasing quickly.

Post-harvest sprays are recommended if there are later varieties or susceptible crops adjacent to the harvested field.

July 18:

We have traps at 68 sites across Ontario. The first trap catch was collected in crops grown in protected culture the week of June 28 - July 4, in Niagara region. As of July 19, we have also trapped SWD in the field in Norfolk, Haldimand, Durham and Niagara region, in wild hosts or in crops such as sweet cherry and raspberry.

Although numbers are still very low, it is important now to protect berry crops and susceptible tender fruit as they are ripening and throughout harvest.  A generation of SWD can occur in 8-10 days and numbers will increase very rapidly.  Insecticides should be applied every 7-10 days depending on the weather and population pressure.  In addition, raspberries should be harvested on a very tight schedule and cooled immediately after harvest. 

  • Strawberry growers should renovate June bearing strawberries as soon as possible once harvest is complete.

  • Raspberry growers should apply an insecticide for SWD.  The most effective strategy for raspberries is to pick early clean and often, in addition to insecticide use. 

  • Blueberry growers should also begin to spray insecticides for SWD. When you are spraying for blueberry maggot or Japanese beetle, choose an insecticide that is also effective on SWD.  Malathion is an effective insecticide for blueberries that will knock down both pests.  If you choose Sevin for Japanese beetle, you can expect some but not great control of SWD.

  • Cherry producers should make sure to clean pick any remaining fruit on trees.  Culled fruit should be bagged or buried to a depth of more than 30 cm at the end of each day, or solarize fruit by covering with plastic and sealing the edges.

  • Tree-ripened peaches may be susceptible to attack by SWD.  Ripening apricots or plums are at risk.  If you are applying a pre-pick spray for oriental fruit moth, consider products that have efficacy against SWD.

Comments on insecticides for SWD:   The best options for SWD at this time are Delegate, Malathion or Entrust.  Pyganic has a short PHI and is acceptable for organic growers, but has very short residual activity. This product is the least effective compared to other products registered for SWD. Ripcord is a pyrethroid insecticide and is expected to be less effective in hot weather.  Two-spotted spider mites and cyclamen mites can be more of a problem where pyrethroid insecticides are used repeatedly. This product will be more useful when temperatures cool down and mites are less active. 

Using salt water tests: Check fruit on a regular basis for larvae and unusual softness and leaking.  A salt water test can be used to check for larvae. Instructions can be found at this link: http://www.omafra.gov.on.ca/english/crops/facts/swd-monitor.htm#salt

In the past week we have trapped SWD in Norfolk, Haldimand, Durham and Niagara region, in wild hosts or in crops. Although numbers are still very low, it is important now to protect berry crops as they are ripening and throughout harvest. A generation of SWD can occur in 8-10 days and numbers will increase very rapidly. Insecticides should be applied every 7-10 days depending on the weather and population pressure. In addition, raspberries should be harvested on a very tight schedule and cooled immediately after harvest.

July 11- SPOTTED WING DROSOPHILA UPDATE: IS NOW ACTIVE IN ONTARIO

The first SWD for the 2013 growing season has been captured. Two males were collected from a crop grown in protected culture in the Niagara region, between June 27th and July 4th. We have not trapped SWD at any outdoor sites so far.

Earlier this week, we also observed SWD in rearing cages with wild raspberries collected July 1st, in Kent County, and from unsprayed berries collected July 2nd in Norfolk County. None of the traps at those regions have been positive for SWD.

This leads us to assume that SWD are present, at least in southern Ontario, and are active in wild hosts. Based on trends observed in previous years, we expect to find SWD in other regions very soon.

Berry crops and cherries are susceptible to SWD when they are ripe, just prior to harvest. There are no established thresholds for SWD. If fruit is ripe and SWD are present in your region, consider a pre-harvest spray to protect crops. Pick early, clean and often.

Strawberry growers should renovate June bearing strawberries as soon as possible once harvest is complete.

Raspberry growers should apply an insecticide for SWD. Most growers will mix this with a compatible fungicide. The most effective strategy for raspberries is to pick early clean and often.

Blueberry growers should be prepared to spray early varieties if SWD has been trapped in their region. When you are spraying for blueberry maggot or Japanese beetle, choose an insecticide that is also effective on SWD. Malathion is an effective insecticide for blueberries that will knock down both pests.

Emergency use registrations: http://www.omafra.gov.on.ca/english/crops/facts/swd-registrations.htm
Check fruit on a regular basis for larvae and unusual softness and leaking. A salt water test can be used to check for larvae. Instructions can be found at this link: http://www.omafra.gov.on.ca/english/crops/facts/swd-monitor.htm#salt

Our SWD project is now funded thanks to the support of the Ontario Berry Growers Association and the Ontario Highbush Blueberry Growers Association, through OFIP, as well as HJ Heinz Co., Dow AgroSciences Canada, Engage Agro Corp., Bayer CropSciences Inc. and E.I. du Pont Canada Company.

July 5 - We have not yet caught any SWD in Ontario. However, samples from this week are still being processed. We are monitoring in susceptible crops, along field edges and, where possible, in wild hosts.

Raspberry and blueberry harvest has begun.

Growers can begin sampling ripe fruit and performing salt tests to watch for larvae.

More information on salt water tests can be found here:

http://www.omafra.gov.on.ca/english/crops/facts/swd-monitor.htm#salt

Emergency use registrations: http://www.omafra.gov.on.ca/english/crops/facts/swd-registrations.htm

June 28 - We did not trap any SWD in Ontario in June. Reports from southwest and western Michigan, Pennsylvania and southern New York indicate that low numbers of SWD are being trapped in wild hosts and field edges. SWD sprays are not recommended on strawberries at this time. Strawberry growers should plan to renovate fruiting fields as soon as harvest is complete. Red raspberry harvest is beginning. Ripe fruit should be picked completely. Insecticides are not essential unless SWD is being trapped in your region.

Wild mulberries are ripening now in southern Ontario as are wild red raspberries and blackcaps. These may be hosts for SWD. We are monitoring wild hosts with traps but also with salt water tests for larvae in fruit and by incubating ripe fruit in the lab to see if SWD emerges.

Emergency use registrations are in place for SWD and have been updated at www.ontario.ca\spottedwing.

With support from the Ontario Berry Growers Association and the Ontario Highbush Blueberry Growers Association we were able to hire a project coordinator this week! Welcome back to Anne Horst. Watch our website for weekly updates. www.ontario.ca\spottedwing

June 13 - We have begun monitoring for SWD flies using apple cider vinegar baited traps at approximately 40 sites in Ontario. We will post regular updates on this website.

We have not trapped SWD in Ontario so far in 2013. However, the first SWD was trapped in other areas this week (south-west Michigan, New Jersey and western Massachusetts). When spotted wing drosophila is trapped in a region, and fruit is ripening, it is time to begin a regular schedule of insecticide applications to protect fruit from this pest.

Several products have been registered through the emergency use registration program for SWD control on raspberries, blueberries, strawberries, grapes, and stone fruit in Ontario. These products are: Delegate WG, Entrust SC, Malathion 85 E (also Malathion 25 W for sweet cherries), Ripcord, and Pyganic EC 1.4. Details on these registrations are provided on our website (www.omafra.gov.on.ca/english/crops/facts/swd-registrations.htm).

Now is the time to plan your control program for SWD. How will you integrate insecticide applications into your harvest schedule? How will you control access to sprayed blocks on your farm? (some growers have chosen to close their PYO business one day a week). Do you have materials and supplies on hand to do regular monitoring for SWD in fruit, using the salt test? What is your sanitation plan for disposing of unmarketable fruit? Successful SWD control will require significant changes to both pest management and crop production practices. See Management Guidelines for SWD and Monitoring for SWD.

Growers and scouts who are interested in trapping for SWD can find information on making traps here: www.fruit.cornell.edu/spottedwing/pdfs/SWDTraps_CornellFruit.pdf or www.agrireseau.qc.ca/lab/documents/Protocole_de_fabrication_du_JP-Trap.pdf

The tricky part is learning to identify SWD. Because only male SWD have spotted wings, a microscope is needed to identify females. A key to identification features is here: www.oregon.gov/ODA/PLANT/docs/pdf/ippm_d_suzukii_id_guide10.pdf?ga=t

May 29 - SWD is an invasive vinegar fly that is a direct pest of berry crops, cherries, and other tender fruit. All growers should be well aware of this pest and have plans in place for control. We have updated information on our website at www.ontario.ca/spottedwing

As another growing season unfolds, we are waiting to see what spotted wing drosophila will do in 2013.

In 2011, through OMAF and MRA's monitoring network, SWD was found in traps on berry and tender fruit farms towards the end of summer; however, there were no reports of commercial crop damage. In 2012 we had our first SWD catch on June 28, about 6 weeks earlier than in 2011. The SWD catches continued to climb and considerable damage was observed in berry crops. We found that SWD was detected at nearly every site across the fruit-growing region of Ontario by the end of the 2012 monitoring survey.

What can we expect for 2013? We know that SWD is established in Ontario and it will show up again in 2013 on fruit farms. Ripening berry crops will be susceptible to damage from SWD. It is important to monitor for the early detection of SWD, because we don't know WHEN we will find SWD moving into the fruit crops.

For 2013, the OMAF and MRA regional SWD monitoring network has begun on some sites. The monitoring is scaled back quite a bit since funding has not been secured. Traps are set up at key sites across the province and hope this is enough to provide meaningful information to Ontario growers. Dr. Rose Buitenhuis and her team at the Vineland Research Innovation Center (VRIC) monitored for SWD in the Niagara region all winter and have not trapped any flies since mid-January. We speak regularly with colleagues in Canada and the USA about the activity of this pest. So far SWD has not been trapped in states and provinces adjacent to Ontario. OMAF and MRA plan to take more fruit samples at sites this year for salt tests and fruit rearing (see if SWD emerges) in attempts to improve early detection efforts for SWD. Growers are encouraged to do their own salt tests too. Salt tests should be done when wild hosts and fruit crops are near ripe, the time when fruit is susceptible to SWD damage.

Stay tuned to our website for updates. www.ontario.ca\spottedwing

 


For more information:
Toll Free: 1-877-424-1300
E-mail: ag.info.omafra@ontario.ca
Author: OMAFRA Staff
Creation Date: 01 january 2013
Last Reviewed: 01 january 2013