Ontario Weeds: Smooth brome
Table of Contents
- Other Names
- General Description
- Stems and Roots
- Flowers and Fruit
- Similar Species
- Related Links
Name: Smooth brome, Bromus inermis
Other Names: BROIN, brome inerme, Brome
Family: Grass Family (Gramineae)
General Description: Perennial spreading
by seed and by dark-coloured underground stems (rhizomes).
Photos and Pictures
Smooth brome. A. Plant.
Stem and leaf-base characteristics of a typical grass.
Stems & Roots: The underground
rhizomes have nodes or joints and internodes and blunt tips. They
produce roots and branches from the nodes. Some branches turn upwards
to emerge as leafy stems. Other remain underground producing still
more branches. Each internode is covered by a large brown to blackish,
dry scaly sheath giving the whole rhizome a dark colour. Stems,
erect, 20-100cm (8-40 in.) tall, leafy.
Flowers & Leaves: Leaves 10-40cm
(4-16 in.) long, pointed, flat, 5-12mm (1/5 - 1/2 in.)wide, and
usually marked with a light green or wrinkled "tattoo"
resembling the letter W near the middle of the blade; leaf sheath
closed (margins united) except for a small V-shaped notch at the
top; ligule a membrane 1-2 mm (1/25 - 1/12 in.) long; auricles absent
or very short and rounded. Inflorescence or "seed head"
is a branched panicle, 10-20cm (4-8in.) long, the stiff branches
spreading when pollinating but afterwards for erect and tighter.
Each spikelet 2-2.5cm (4/5 - 1in.) long, without awns (hence the
name "smooth"), or with awns not over 2mm (1/12in.) long,
and 5 to 9 flowered (having 5 to 9 fertile florets which become
the individual "seeds"). Flowers from June to September.
Habitat: Smooth brome is widely cultivated
as an excellent hay an pasture grass, and as a soil cinder along
roadsides, eroded banks, etc., throughout Ontario. Bit it often
persists after cultivation and may infest succeeding crops, gardens
and lawns. Old stands may become sod-bound, producing many short,
leafy stems but few or no seed heads.
Similar Species: It is distinguished by
the letter W on some lead blades, its closed leaf sheath, the absence
of distinct auricles, its blunt-tipped rhizomes with dark brown
scaly sheaths as long as or longer than each internode and its branched,
erect panicle with fairly large smooth spikelets.
... on general Weed
... on weed identification, order OMAFRA
Publication 505: Ontario Weeds
... on weed control, order OMAFRA
Publication 75: Guide To Weed Control
to the Ontario Weeds Gallery |