Ontario Weeds: Ox-eye daisy
Excerpt from Publication 505, Ontario Weeds,
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Table of Contents
- Other Names
- General Description
- Stems and Roots
- Flowers and Fruit
- Related Links
Name: Ox-eye daisy, Chrysanthemum
Other Names: CHYLE, marguerite blanche, Field daisy, White daisy, grande marguerite, marguerite, chrysanthème leucanthème
Family: Composite or Aster Family (Compostiae)
General Description: Perennial, reproducing by seed and by underground rhizomes. It is distinguished by its dark green, smooth, somewhat fleshy, dissected or coarsely toothed leaves, its large, conspicuous, daisy-like flower heads with white rays and yellow centres, its rhizomatous and fibrous-rooted underground system, and its disagreeable odour.
Ox-eye daisy. A. Young rosette.
B. Older plant with flowering stems.
The Composite "Flower Head" of Ox-eye daisy. A. Flower head viewed form above. B. Flower head viewed from below. C. Vertical section through flower head and stalk. D. Side view of on e disk or tubular floret. E. Front view of one sterile ray or ligulate floret (without either stamens or stigma).
Stems & Roots: Stems erect or
curving upwards 20 - 90 cm (8 - 36 in.) high, single from upturned
ends of rhizomes, or few to many from a stout root-crown; lower
leaves broadly spoon-shaped, deeply and coarsely dissected or toothed,
stalked, smooth, dark green, often glossy and fleshy; upper leaves
narrower, similarly dissected or deeply toothed, stalkless and often
clasping the stem, alternate (1 per node).
Flowers & Fruit: Flower heads large and showy, daisy-like, 2.5 - 5 cm (1 - 2 in.) across, borne singly at ends of stems and main branches; ray florets usually 15 to 30 per head, white, 1 - 2 cm (2/5 - 4/5 in.) long; disk florets bright yellow, short, numerous, densely packed, forming a slightly rounded centre; involucral bracts at base of each head numerous, firm, overlapping, light green with brownish margins; seeds top-shaped with a knob-like projection on the upper end, ridged, and with alternate black and white stripes. When crushed, all parts of the plant have a disagreeably sour odour. Flowers from early June to late autumn.
Habitat: Ox-eye daisy is very common and conspicuous throughout Ontario, often forming dense infestations in pastures, meadows and waste places, but also occurring in cultivated land, roadsides, gardens and lawns.
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