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Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs

Frost Damage, Hail, Sand, and Wind

Frost Damage: Frost damage can occur at temperatures below -1 or -2°C (28- 30°F).  Frozen leaves and fruit surfaces initially have a water-soaked appearance, then turn brown or black.

Hail:  Severe hail injury results in shredded leaves or defoliation and damaged fruit.  Light hail injury may cause depressed areas of various size and shape on the fruit and ragged holes in the leaves.  The fruit spots will be lighter green than the surrounding tissue.  If the skin is broken, the surface of the spot becomes greyish-white and paper-like.  A few days after the injury, the spot may be surrounded by a greenish-tan halo.

Sand and Wind:  Sand abrasion or sand blasting occurs with high winds on exposed, light, sandy soils.  It may cause stems and leaves on the windward side to develop light tan-coloured roughened areas.  If severe, it can stunt or kill plants and significantly reduce yield.  The whipping of young plants by strong winds can also severely damage or kill plants.  Wind-strips, cover crops, and windbreaks will minimize problems due to wind and sand movement. Wind and cool temperatures can also cause desiccation of plant tissue.

Frost damage to tomato leaf Hail damage to tomato leaf Hail damage to tomato fruit Stand loss due to wind and sand blasting Frost damage Wind and chilling damage Wind damage Hail damage Frost damage
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