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Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs

Tissue Analysis

Plant analysis measures the nutrient content within the plant tissue. This can be a useful addition to soil testing. Plant analysis results are compared against established normal ranges for the crop, indicating whether a specific nutrient is deficient. For some nutrients, this can indicate whether the soil nutrient supply is adequate for optimum growth. If soil levels are known to be adequate, plant analysis may indicate other problems that are reducing nutrient uptake.

Plant analysis can be used to evaluate phosphorus, potassium, magnesium and manganese fertility. It is very useful in assessing the status of boron, copper, iron or molybdenum as these nutrients do not have reliable soil tests. Plant analysis results for nitrogen and zinc are not always reliable.

Sampling

  • The recommended timing for grape analysis is in early September.
  • The recommended tissue for sampling in grape is the petiole.
  • Grape leaf petioles are selected from mature leaves of bearing canes in September. Leaves opposite bunches are preferred. Young or senescent leaves should be avoided.
  • Only the petioles are used in analyses. The leaf blade should be separated immediately and discarded. Up to 200 petioles are needed for some cultivars.
  • For nutrient sufficiency ranges of grapes, click here.

 

  • Nutrient levels within a plant vary considerably with the plant age and physiological stage. If you suspect a plant is nutrient deficient, sample it as soon as the problem appears. Take tissue samples from a problem area rather than from the entire field. Collect and submit a separate sample from an adjacent, non-affected part of the field for comparison purposes.
  • Take leaves from at least 20 plants distributed throughout the area chosen for sampling. Each sample should consist of at least 100 g (3.2 oz) of fresh material. For most crops, it is recommended to sample the most recently mature leaf from each plant. Very old and very young leaves often provide irregular test results.
  • Collect tissue samples into labeled paper bags. Plant tissues will rot if they are stored in plastic bags. Avoid contaminating the sample with soil. Even a small amount of soil will cause the results to be invalid, especially for micronutrients.
  • Collect and submit a soil sample from both affected and non-affected areas to accompany the tissue sample. This soil sample can help address whether the nutrient deficiency is a result of limited soil availability or due to another contributing factor.
  • Fresh plant samples should be delivered directly to the laboratory. If they are not delivered immediately, they should be dried at a low temperature to prevent spoilage.

Interpretation
When the nutrient levels are in the crop's sufficiency range, increasing the nutrient concentration in the leaf is unlikely to result in increased crop growth. The objective of a good fertility program is to maintain tissue concentrations on the lower end of the range. Attempting to bring the nutrient analysis up to the higher end could possibly result in over fertilization and may not be cost effective.

Plant analysis has limitations. Expert help in interpreting the results is often needed. Plant analysis does not usually indicate the cause of a deficiency or the amount of fertilizer required for correcting it. The timing of plant analysis on many vegetable crops is difficult. Rapid growth and a relatively short growing season means that yield loss may have already occurred by the time sample results are available. However, it is a valuable tool for diagnosing nutrient-related problem areas for future corrective measures.

Boron deficiency Magnesium deficiency Zinc deficiencyClick to enlarge.